生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (1): 104-113.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018142

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国家公园生态系统完整性评价研究进展

代云川1,2,薛亚东1,2,张云毅3,李迪强1,2,*()   

  1. 1 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所, 北京 100091
    2 国家林草局生物多样性保护重点实验室, 北京 100091
    3 国家林草局野生动植物保护与自然保护区管理司, 北京 100084
  • 收稿日期:2018-05-15 接受日期:2018-08-20 出版日期:2019-01-20 发布日期:2018-09-06
  • 通讯作者: 李迪强
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2017YFC0506405);国家林业和草原局野生动物保护管理项目( 国家公园生态系统完整性评估体系研究)

Summary comments on assessment methods of ecosystem integrity for national parks

Dai Yunchuan1,2,Xue Yadong1,2,Zhang Yunyi3,Li Diqiang1,2,*()   

  1. 1 Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091
    2 Key Laboratory of Biodiversity Conservation, State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Beijing 100091
    3 Department of Wildlife Conservation and Nature Reserve Management, State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Beijing 100084
  • Received:2018-05-15 Accepted:2018-08-20 Online:2019-01-20 Published:2018-09-06
  • Contact: Li Diqiang

摘要:

建立国家公园可促进生态环境和生物多样性的保护, 而国家公园生态系统完整性评价对于维持生态系统平衡、生态系统健康、生物多样性以及典型生态系统的完整性具有重要意义。本文介绍了生物完整性指数评价体系(Index of Biotic Integrity, IBI)、三级法评估框架(Three Level Approach, TLA)和生态系统完整性评估框架(Ecosystem Integrity Assessment Framework, EIAF)三种国家公园生态系统完整性评价方法, 其中生物完整性指数评价体系基于高强度的野外调查和室内实验分析, 虽然花费大、耗时长以及生物鉴定专业性要求较高, 但评价结果准确可靠; 三级法评估框架分为三个级别, 即远程型评价(Remote Assessment)、快速型评价(Rapid Assessment)和密集型评价(Intensive Assessment), 在评价独立且较为复杂的生态系统完整性时具有极大的灵活性; 生态系统完整性评估框架吸取了生物完整性指数评价体系和三级法评估框架的优点, 扩充了评价体系的指标, 优化了生态系统完整性评价计分统计方法, 是目前最为成熟的评价方法之一。同时,本文也探讨了目前国家公园生态系统完整性评价研究中存在的一些问题,如评价指标不全、评价形式单一和评价方法主观性较强等。作者指出, 国家公园生态系统完整性的研究需要注重自然-经济-社会的结合与统一, 加强社会经济可持续发展与人类健康等方面的研究, 挖掘外来入侵物种与生态环境之间的关系, 继续寻找能够反映生态系统完整性状态和变化趋势的新的指示物种, 进而制定统一标准的评价方法体系。

关键词: 国家公园, 生态系统完整性, 生物多样性, 评价, 指标

Abstract:

National parks are one of the foundations of global biodiversity conservation and help protect the ecological environment and biodiversity. Assessing ecosystem integrity in national parks can help understand ecosystem balance, health, and biodiversity status. We introduce three methods to assess ecosystem integrity of national parks: IBI (Index of Biotic Integrity), TLA (Three Level Approach) and EIAF (Ecosystem Integrity Assessment Framework), respectively. IBI relies on high intensity field survey and laboratory analysis. Albeit expensive, time consuming and requiring high level of biological expertise in identifying species, the results are accurate and reliable. TLA, including Remote Assessment, Rapid Assessment and Intensive Assessment, offers great flexibility to assess the integrity of complex ecosystems. EIAF combines the advantages of IBI and TLA, expands the use of indicator species and optimizes scoring statistics. Hence, EIAF is one the most sophisticated assessment methods of ecosystem integrity for national parks. We also discuss some issues such as incomplete assessment indices, single assessment form and subjectivity of assessment methods in current studies. We propose that research on ecosystem integrity of national parks should combine the processes that join nature, economy and society. Such an interdisciplinary approach requires integrated research on sustainable socio-economic development and human health, and explore the relationship between invasive species and ecological environment. We also suggest the need to look for new indicator species that can reflect the state and change trend of ecosystem integrity and thus help develop a standardized assessment system for national parks.

Key words: national park, ecosystem integrity, biodiversity, assessment, index