生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (12): 1308-1317.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018131

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国西南高黎贡山绿僵菌物种多样性及其垂直分布特征

陈自宏1, 杨晓娜1, 孙宁静1, 徐玲1, *(), 郑元2, 杨宇明3   

  1. 1 保山学院高黎贡山生物资源研究所, 云南保山 678000
    2 西南林业大学林学院, 昆明 650224
    3 云南省林业科学院云南省森林植物培育与开发利用重点实验室, 昆明 650201
  • 收稿日期:2018-05-03 接受日期:2018-07-04 出版日期:2018-12-20
  • 通讯作者: 徐玲 E-mail:xuling09083@163.com
  • 作者简介:# 共同第一作者
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学地区基金(31460153)、云南省科技厅地方本科高校基础研究联合专项资金面上项目(2017FH001-029)、云南省科技厅地方本科高校基础研究联合专项资金重点项目(2017FH001-126)和保山市第六批中青年学术和技术带头人项目(bszqnxshjsdtr201701)

Species diversity and vertical distribution characteristics of Metarhizium in Gaoligong Mountains, southwestern China

Zihong Chen1, Xiaona Yang1, Ningjing Sun1, Ling Xu1, *(), Yuan Zheng2, Yuming Yang3   

  1. 1 Institute of Biological Resources of Gaoligong Mountains, Baoshan University, Baoshan, Yunnan 678000
    2 College of Forestry, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224
    3 Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Cultivation and Utilization, Yunnan Academy of Forestry, Kunming 650201
  • Received:2018-05-03 Accepted:2018-07-04 Online:2018-12-20
  • Contact: Xu Ling E-mail:xuling09083@163.com
  • About author:# 同等贡献作者 Contributed equally to this work

云南高黎贡山具有多样化的生态系统和生物资源。为探清该地区绿僵菌属(Metarhizium)真菌的物种多样性及其不同海拔的垂直分布特征, 沿海拔梯度(600-3,800 m)在7种典型植被类型(I: 干热河谷; II: 季风常绿阔叶林; III: 暖性针叶林; IV: 中山暖性常绿阔叶林; V: 山地苔藓矮林; VI: 寒温性灌丛或草甸; VII: 流石滩稀疏植被)中调查绿僵菌资源。从生境土壤中分离菌株, 通过多基因(nrSSUnrLSUEF-1αRPB1RPB2)系统发育分析进行物种鉴定。结果表明, 高黎贡山绿僵菌物种资源丰富, 获得的161株菌株分属于12个物种(Metarhizium rileyi, M. viridulum, M. lepidiotae, M. brunneum, M. pingshaense, M. anisopliae, M. robertsii, M. guizhouense, M. indigoticum, M. pemphigi, M. campsosterniMetacordyceps neogunnii), 其中M. indigoticum为中国新记录种, M. anisopliae complex中的物种(8种)较集中; 同时还采集到了绿僵菌的近缘属Nigelia属物种N. martiale。高黎贡山绿僵菌广泛分布于除类型VII (海拔3,600-3,800 m)外的6种植被类型(海拔600-3,400 m)中。中低海拔植被类型(I-IV)中菌株数量较多(≥23株)、物种多样性较高(4-9种), 而高海拔植被类型(V-VI)中菌株数量较少(2-8株)、物种较单一(1-2种)。中海拔的常绿阔叶林中绿僵菌资源最丰富, 其中季风常绿阔叶林(植被类型II)中的菌株数量(52株, 占总数的32.3%)和物种数(9种)最多; 中山湿性常绿阔叶林(植被类型IV)为其次(47株, 占总数的29.2%; 7种)。高黎贡山绿僵菌优势种现象明显, M. brunneum为最优势物种, 其菌株数占总数的46.6%, 在生境条件差异很大的6种植被类型(I-VI)中都存在, 说明该物种生态适应能力最强。

关键词: 高黎贡山, 绿僵菌, 系统发育分析, 物种多样性, 垂直分布

Gaoligong Mountains in Yunnan Province, China have diverse ecological systems and biological resources. To understand the diversity and the vertical distribution of Metarhizium species at different elevations in this area, Metarhizium resources were investigated in seven typical vegetation types (i.e., I, dry-hot valley; II, monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest; III, warm coniferous forest; IV, mod-montane humid evergreen broad-leaved forest; V, mountain moss dwarf forest; VI, cold shrubs of meadow; and VII, rocky beach sparsely vegetation) along an elevation gradient (600-3,800 m). Strains of Metarhizium were isolated from soils of the vegetations at different elevations and identified using multi-gene (nrSSU, nrLSU, EF-1α, RPB1, and RPB2) phylogenetic analysis. Our result indicated that the species of Metarhizium in Gaoligong Mountains were abundant and the obtained 161 strains represented 12 Metarhizium species, namely, M. rileyi, M. viridulum, M. lepidiotae, M. brunneum, M. pingshaense, M. anisopliae, M. robertsii, M. guizhouense, M. indigoticum, M. pemphigi, M. campsosterni, and Metacordyceps neogunnii, and most of them (8 species) belonged to M. anisopliae complex. Additionally, Nigelia martiale, a taxon close to Metarhizium was also found in this area. M. indigoticum is new to China. Fungi of Metarhizium in Gaoligong Mountains were widely distributed in six vegetation types at elevation between 600 m and 3,400 m, but not in type VII at the elevation of 3,600-3,800 m. The vegetations at the low and middle elevations (I-IV) harbored larger number of strains (≥ 23) and higher species diversity (4-9 species), whereas those at high elevations (V-VI) possessed fewer strains (2-8) and relatively limited species (1-2 species). Metarhizium resources were the most abundant in evergreen broad-leaved forests at the middle elevation. The monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (vegetation type II) possessed the largest number of Metarhizium strains (52 strains, 32.3% of the total) and species (9 species), while mid-montane humid evergreen broad-leaved forest (vegetation type IV) (47 strains, 29.2% of the total) was the next. The superior species phenomenon of Metarhizium was remarkable in Gaoligong Mountains, M. brunneum being the most dominant, at 46.6% of the total strain numbers. It widely exists in six vegetation types (I-VI) with very different habitat conditions, suggesting that this species has the highest ecologic adaptability.

Key words: Gaoligong Mountains, Metarhizium, phylogenetic analysis, species diversity, vertical distribution

图1

高黎贡山绿僵菌不同物种的菌落及其他真菌材料。(A) M. brunneum的菌落; (B) M. lepidiotae的菌落; (C) M. indigoticum的菌落; (D) M. campsosterni的菌落; (E) M. robertsii的菌落; (F) M. guizhouense的菌落; (G) M. anisopliae的菌落; (H) M. pingshaense的菌落; (I) M. viridulum的菌落; (J) M. pemphigi的菌落; (K) M. rileyi的菌落; (L) Mc. neogunnii的菌落; (M)绿僵菌的诱导分离; (N) M. viridulum的子座; (O) M. rileyi感染鳞翅目幼虫形成的孢子; (P) M. pemphigi感染叶甲形成的孢子; (Q) N. martiale的子实体。A-O和Q的比例尺 = 1 cm; P的比例尺= 0.5 cm。"

表1

高黎贡山绿僵菌属不同物种的菌株数量及生境条件。I: 干热河谷; II: 季风常绿阔叶林; III: 暖性针叶林; IV: 中山暖性常绿阔叶林; V: 山地苔藓矮林; VI: 寒温性灌丛或草甸; VII: 流石滩稀疏植被。"

物种
Species
菌株数
strain number
菌株百分比
%
植被类型
Vegetation type
海拔跨度
Altitude span (m)
温度
Temperature (℃)
湿度
Humidity (%)
Metarhizium brunneum 75 46.6 I-VI 600-3,400 13-34 32-80
M. pemphigi 25 15.5 I, II, IV 800-2,119 20-32 39-70
M. pingshaense 11 6.8 I, IV, V 1,925-3,135 15-34 58-74
M. guizhouense 13 8.1 II, IV 1,540-2,280 18-30 57-74
M. rileyi 10 6.2 II, IV 1,780-2,495 17-27 49-54
M. robertsii 5 3.1 I, IV 723-1,981 22-32 52-63
M. indigoticum 4 2.5 II, III 1,512-1,981 22-30 58-59
M. anisopliae 4 2.5 II, III 1,370-1,900 25-30 60-76
Metacordyceps neogunnii 7 4.4 II 1,438 25 65
M. campsosterni 5 3.1 IV 2,022 22 58
M. viridulum 1 0.6 II 1,540 30 57
M. lepidiotae 1 0.6 III 1,765 25 58
Nigelia martiale - - II 1,568 30 60
合计 Total 161 100 6 600-3,400 13-34 32-80

图2

基于5个基因(nrSSU、nrLSU、EF-1α、RPB1和RPB2)核苷酸序列分析获得的绿僵菌属系统发育树。采自高黎贡山的材料被标为黑体字。"

图3

中国新记录种Metarhizium indigoticum (菌株BUM 1512.8)的形态特征。(A)菌落正面; (B)菌落背面; (C)分生孢子链; (D, E)产孢结构。C-E的比例尺 = 5 µm."

图4

高黎贡山不同植被类型中绿僵菌的物种及菌株数量。L: 低海拔; M: 中海拔; H: 高海拔。"

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