生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (10): 1074-1082.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018105

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中国巨蚓科蚯蚓的起源与演化

蒋际宝1, 2, 3, 邱江平1, 2, 3, *()   

  1. 1 (上海交通大学农业与生物学院, 上海 200240)
    2 (农业部都市农业重点实验室, 上海 200240)
    3 (国家林业局上海城市森林生态系统国家定位观测研究站, 上海 200240);
  • 收稿日期:2018-04-10 接受日期:2018-10-02 出版日期:2018-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 邱江平 E-mail:jpq@sjtu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:# 共同第一作者
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(41471204, 31401947)和博士后科学基金(2017M611546)

Origin and evolution of earthworms belonging to the family Megascolecidae in China

Jibao Jiang1, 2, 3, Jiangping Qiu1, 2, 3, *()   

  1. 1 School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240
    2 Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai 200240
    3 Shanghai Urban Forest Research Station, State Forestry Administration, Shanghai 200240
  • Received:2018-04-10 Accepted:2018-10-02 Online:2018-10-20
  • Contact: Qiu Jiangping E-mail:jpq@sjtu.edu.cn
  • About author:# Co-first authors

截至2017年中国已记录巨蚓科蚯蚓579种(亚种), 优势类群为远盲蚓属(Amynthas)与腔蚓属(Metaphire), 其丰富的物种多样性值得深入研究。近年来的研究指出联合形态分类与分子系统发育可较好地探讨中国巨蚓科蚯蚓的起源、分化与扩散。本文概述了中国巨蚓科蚯蚓物种的起源、分化时间以及扩散历程, 探讨了受精囊孔、盲肠形状等重要特征的演化, 分析了现行分类系统的缺陷。多项研究表明, 中国巨蚓科主要类群的祖先起源于中南半岛, 于白垩纪末期至新生代初期进入中国, 在新生代得以繁荣发展; 受精囊孔的对数或位置是多起源的, 盲肠形状演化中有祖征重现的现象, 故使用少数形态特征进行类群划分的现行分类系统有待改进。此外, 中国巨蚓科蚯蚓的具体演化机制及影响因素仍不明确。因此, 在未来研究中整合形态特征、分子数据与地理格局、地质历史及环境因子等信息, 定量分析类群演化与古地理、生物与非生物因素间的关系, 将有助于全面厘清中国巨蚓科蚯蚓演化的具体机制。

关键词: 巨蚓科, 蚯蚓, 起源, 物种分化, 特征演化

A total of 579 Megascolecidae species have been reported in China through 2017. Most belong to the genera Amynthas and Metaphire. The family’s rich diversity merits further investigation into its evolutionary history. The arc of research indicates that analysis based on taxonomical and molecular methods reveals the evolutionary history of the family Megascolecidae in China. This paper summarizes updated findings regarding origin, speciation and dispersal of Megascolecidae in China, and discusses the evolution of major familial characteristics (e. g. spermathecal pores, caeca). Several analyses suggest that the ancestors of Megascolecidae in China may have come from the Indo-China Peninsula. Speciation radiation likely occurred after the Cretaceous-Palaeogene mass extinction, and species richness increased rapidly during the Cenozoic period. Ancestral range reconstruction analysis shows that species-groups are polyphyletic and that evolutionary reversal often resulted in sharp evolution of caeca, so we suggest that the current taxonomic system of Megascolecidae, which is based on a few morphological characters, should be reconstructed. We also note that the specific mechanism of evolution in Megascolecidae has not been studied. Hence, future research to reveal the specific evolutionary mechanism of Megascolecidae earthworms requires more systematic sampling of this family, combined with morphological research, phylogeny construction and analysis of geographical patterns, geological history and environmental factors.

Key words: Megascolecidae, earthworm, origin, speciation, evolution of characteristics

图1

在2017年前已调查的中国巨蚓科蚯蚓物种分布示意图。白色代表调查空白省份。"

图2

中国巨蚓科蚯蚓主要类群的分化时间。Mt09P为外群, Mt33M为环棘蚓属物种, Mt70M与Mt51T为2个远盲蚓属物种。"

图3

中国巨蚓科蚯蚓分子系统发育树在地图上的投影"

图4

中国巨蚓科蚯蚓物种分化数随时间的变化"

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