生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (4): 373-383.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017337

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

长江流域野生猕猴桃遗传资源的潜在价值、现状分析与保护策略

王玉国1, 2, *(), 杨洁1, 2, 陈家宽1, 2   

  1. 1 生物多样性与生态工程教育部重点实验室, 复旦大学生物多样性科学研究所, 上海 200438
    2 复旦大学生命科学学院生态与进化生物学系, 上海 200438
  • 收稿日期:2017-12-25 接受日期:2018-03-08 出版日期:2018-04-20
  • 通讯作者: 王玉国 E-mail:wangyg@fudan.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(30970199, 31370248)

Potential value, status analysis, and protection strategy of wild kiwifruit genetic resources in the Yangtze River Basin

Yuguo Wang1, 2, *(), Jie Yang1, 2, Jiakuan Chen1, 2   

  1. 1 Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438
    2 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438
  • Received:2017-12-25 Accepted:2018-03-08 Online:2018-04-20
  • Contact: Wang Yuguo E-mail:wangyg@fudan.edu.cn
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

长江流域是猕猴桃属(Actinidia)植物起源和演化的关键分布区, 富集了全世界重要的猕猴桃属野生物种资源和中华-美味猕猴桃物种复合体(Actinidia chinensis-A. deliciosa species complex)的种群遗传资源。作为水果作物, 猕猴桃在100多年前从长江流域经上海到新西兰, 通过栽培、驯化, 逐渐发展成新兴果树产业。目前, 猕猴桃植物的研究已在二倍体“红阳”中华猕猴桃(Actinidia chinensis cv. Hongyang)的基因组测序、种间关系的重测序分析和基础的分子系统发育、种群遗传结构等方面取得长足进步, 但基于最新研究成果的基本资源评价还相当匮乏, 对猕猴桃野生资源的保护与可持续利用亟待加强。本文回顾了栽培猕猴桃的驯化简史与猕猴桃属植物系统分类的研究进展, 通过与其他流域的比较, 对长江流域野生猕猴桃资源的潜在价值和现状进行分析, 阐述了该流域猕猴桃属植物的分布特点和受威胁的状况, 并针对目前存在的问题提出建立长效的保护机制、加强遗传资源的基础科研调查和系统评价, 以及健全种质资源保存规范和促进可持续利用等相应保护的策略。

关键词: 猕猴桃, 遗传资源, 潜在价值, 现状分析, 保护策略

The Yangtze River Basin is key distribution area involved in the origin and evolution of kiwifruit as it possesses more important resources of wild kiwifruit species and populations of Actinidia chinensis-A. deliciosa species complex in the world. The seeds of kiwifruit were brought from Yichang, Hubei to Shanghai along the Yangtze River and reached New Zealand more than 100 years ago. Through cultivation and domestication, the initial seedlings gradually developed as a new fruit crop industry. In recent decades, great progress has been made on kiwifruit studies in China including genomic sequencing for diploid Actinidia chinensis cv. Hongyang, resequencing for interspecific relationships among the Actinidia species, molecular phylogeny and infrageneric classification of the genus Actinidia, and population genetic structure of certain species. However, more results are still needed to understand the origin, domestication and speciation of the kiwifruit species. Resource assessment on the base of the latest research is still lacking. It is of great importance to strengthen the protection and sustainable utilization of wild kiwifruit resources. Here we review the domestication history of cultivated kiwifruit, advances of systematics and classification in Actinidia, analyze the potential value and the present situation of wild kiwifruit resources in the Yangtze River Basin, and summarize distribution characteristics and threats to the endangered species of Actinidia in the basin. Finally, corresponding protection strategies for the existing problems are suggested, including the establishment of long-term protection mechanisms, the enhancement of basic scientific research and systematic evaluation of genetic resources, and the improvement of conservation standards of the germplasm resources for the sustainable utilization of wild kiwifruit resources.

Key words: kiwifruit, genetic resources, potential value, status analysis, protection strategy

表1

长江流域主要省区猕猴桃属植物的分布。种名采用Li JQ等(2007)的分类处理, 受威胁等级采用覃海宁等(2017)的划分。"

云南
Yunnan
四川
Sichuan
重庆
Chongqing
贵州
Guizhou
湖南
Hunan
江西
Jiangxi
湖北
Hubei
安徽
Anhui
浙江
Zhejiang
甘肃
Gansu
陕西
Shaanxi
西藏
Tibet
濒危等级
Category
软枣猕猴桃
A. arguta
+ + + + + + + + + +
黑蕊猕猴桃
A. melanandra
+ + + + + + + + + +
狗枣猕猴桃
A. kolomikta
+ + + + + +
四萼猕猴桃
A. tetramera
+ + + + + +
对萼猕猴桃
A. valvata
+ + + + +
葛枣猕猴桃
A. polygama
+ + + + +
大籽猕猴桃
A. macrosperma
+ + + +
伞花猕猴桃
A. umbelloides
+ 极危 CR
红茎猕猴桃
A. rubricaulis
+ + + + + + + + + +
硬齿猕猴桃
A. callosa
+ + + + + + + + +
显脉猕猴桃
A. venosa
+ + + + +
粉叶猕猴桃
A. glaucocallosa
+ 易危 VU
全毛猕猴桃
A. holotricha
+
昭通猕猴桃
A. rubus
+ + +
葡萄叶猕猴桃
A. vitifolia
+ 易危 VU
红毛猕猴桃
A. rufotricha
+ 濒危 EN
黄毛猕猴桃
A. fulvicoma
+ + + + 糙毛猕猴桃变种 A. fulvicoma var. hirsute, 易危 VU
毛花猕猴桃
A. eriantha
+ + + +
中华猕猴桃
A. chinensis
(含美味猕猴桃
A. deliciosa
)
+ + + + + + + + + + +
贡山猕猴桃
A. pilosula
+ 易危 VU
大花猕猴桃
A. grandiflora
+ + 易危 VU
倒卵叶猕猴桃
A. obovata
+ 濒危 EN
花楸猕猴桃
A. sorbifolia
+ + 易危 VU
城口猕猴桃
A. chengkouensis
+ + 濒危 EN
云南
Yunnan
四川
Sichuan
重庆
Chongqing
贵州
Guizhou
湖南
Hunan
江西
Jiangxi
湖北
Hubei
安徽
Anhui
浙江
Zhejiang
甘肃
Gansu
陕西
Shaanxi
西藏
Tibet
濒危等级
Category
榆叶猕猴桃
A. ulmifolia
+ + 濒危 EN
阔叶猕猴桃
A. latifolia
+ + + + + 长绒猕猴桃变种 A. latifolia var. mollis易危 VU
星毛猕猴桃
A. stellato-pilosa
+ 极危 CR
毛蕊猕猴桃
A. trichogyna
+ + + 易危 VU
金花猕猴桃
A. chrysantha
+ +
安息香猕猴桃
A. styracifolia
+ + + 易危 VU
小叶猕猴桃
A. lanceolata
+ + + + 易危 VU
两广猕猴桃
A. liangguangensis
+
条叶猕猴桃
A. fortunatii
+
美丽猕猴桃
A. melliana
+ +
肉叶猕猴桃
A. carnosifolia
+
滑叶猕猴桃
A. laevissima
+ + 易危 VU
清风藤猕猴桃
A. sabiifolia
+ + 易危 VU
长叶猕猴桃
A. hemsleyana
+ + + 易危 VU
浙江猕猴桃
A. zhejiangensis
+ + 极危 CR
湖北猕猴桃
A. hubeiensis
+ 极危 CR
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