生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (1): 44-52.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017314

• 方法 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于GIS的外来入侵植物调查规划与外业实施

陈宏1, 冼晓青2, 邱荣洲3, 池美香3, 赵健1*()   

  1. 1 福建省农业科学院数字农业研究所, 福州 350003
    2 中国农业科学院植物保护研究所, 北京 100193
    3 福建省农业科学院植物保护研究所, 福州 350012
  • 收稿日期:2017-11-26 接受日期:2018-01-18 出版日期:2018-01-27
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金项目:
    国家重点研发计划(2016YFC202105)和福建省科技重大专项(2017NZ0003-1)

Planning and conducting field surveys of invasive alien species based on GIS

Hong Chen1, Xiaoqing Xian2, Rongzhou Qiu3, Meixiang Chi3, Jian Zhao1, *()   

  1. 1 Institute of Digital Agriculture Research, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Fuzhou 350003
    2 Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193
    3 Institute of Plant Protection, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Fuzhou 350012
  • Received:2017-11-26 Accepted:2018-01-18 Online:2018-01-27
  • Contact: Zhao Jian E-mail:zhaojian@faas.cn
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

前期规划对外来入侵植物野外调查工作的顺利开展至关重要。本文将基于GIS的野外调查规划方法和入侵植物调查技术规范相结合, 利用地图资源丰富、分析功能强大的LocaSpace Viewer和奥维互动地图, 形成有针对性的野外调查规划方案。具体操作流程包括: (1)借助LocaSpace Viewer软件集成的高分辨率遥感数据和地理标注数据选取调查区域; (2)根据调查规范, 通过该软件的空间分析和地理要素编辑功能, 规划调查地理网格、调查点、样地、标准地和样方, 运用KML空间数据格式存储和分享调查规划信息; (3)在外业实施中使用移动版奥维互动地图软件的数据管理和导航功能实现调查规划信息的导入、定位和导航。通过在福建、广西和云南三省开展技术方法的实地应用与对比实验发现, 运用该方案的外业实施能够达到日平均调查6个样点, 采集调查数据80多条, 直线调查距离180 km, 调查点导航精度大于15 m。对比实验表明基于规划调查比未规划调查在时间利用效率上提高1倍, 工作效率得到显著提升。该方案为外来入侵植物的发生和危害等基础性调查工作提供了高效的技术支撑, 为生物多样性野外调查规划提供了参考方案。

关键词: GIS, 外来入侵植物, 调查规划, 外业实施, LocaSpace Viewer

Pre-planning plays a vital role in developing invasive alien plant surveys rapidly and conveniently in the field. This study combined survey technical standards of invasive alien plants and field survey planning methods based on GIS to develop a targeted field survey planning program. LocaSpace Viewer and Orvital maps, which provide rich map resources and powerful functions, were mainly applied. The detailed workflow was as follows: Firstly, the target areas for invasive alien plant field surveys were selected by integrating high-resolution remote sensing data and geographical annotation data in the LocaSpace Viewer; Secondly, according to standards of invasive alien plant field surveys, survey geographic grids, survey points, sample plots, standard-plots, and quadrats were established through the functions of spatial analysis and editing geographic elements in the LocaSpace Viewer, of which information were stored and shared in the KML format; Finally, positioning and navigation of survey points were implemented by Data Management and Navigation functions in the mobile terminal software of the Orvital map. Comparative experiments and applications of proposed technology and methodology have been carried out in Fujian, Guangxi, and Yunnan provinces. Results suggested that the developed technology and methods for planning invasive alien plant surveys and field operations based on GIS technology can help to fulfill surveys in 6 sample points and collect more than 80 records per day. The direct distance of daily invasive alien plant survey is approximately 180 km. The navigation accuracy of survey points is better than 15 m. Planning-based surveys have double the time utilization rate of unplanned surveys. The technical route presented in this study greatly contributes to improving the efficiency of invasive alien plant surveys and provides powerful technical support for invasive alien plant survey in the field and insight into biodiversity field surveying.

Key words: GIS, invasive alien plants, survey planning, field operation, LocaSpace Viewer

表1

LocaSpace Viewer与Google Earth数据资源与功能对比"

LocaSpace Viewer Google Earth
在线地图资源
Online map resources
Google卫星影像、Google历史卫星影像、Google地形、天地图中国地图、天地图分省地图、天地图卫星影像、Bing地图、Bing卫星影像、气象图、中国地质图、中国植被覆盖图、中国水系图。Google satellite images, Google historical satellite images, Google terrain data, MAPWORLD map of China, MAPWORLD provincial map, MAPWORLD satellite images, Bing map, Bing satellite images, Meteorological map, Geological map of China, Vegetation coverage map of China, River map of China. 卫星影像、历史卫星影像、地形。Google satellite images, Google historical satellite images, Google terrain data.
地图标注
Map annotation data
集成天地图标注, 覆盖全国的各级行政中心、居民点、兴趣点、各级公路、水系、铁路等要素。Integrating MAPWORLD annotation data, and important elements covering all levels of the country’s administrative centers, settlements, points of interest, all levels of roads, waterways and railways. 提供省份及人口聚集地、省界、主要道路的标注, 但不完整。针对指定区域的标注需要导入KML地标文件。Providing incomplete annotation data of different provinces, population centers, provincial boundaries and the main roads. Placemark files in KML (Keyhole markup language) format for specific area is required to be imported into Google Earth.
支持数据类型
Supported data types
KML数据、影像数据、地形数据、CAD数据、矢量数据、GPS数据。KML data, Image data, Terrain data, AutoCAD drawing database, Vector data, GPS data. KML数据、影像数据、GPS数据。KML data, Image data, GPS data.
分析功能
Analysis functions
缓冲区分析、通视分析、可视域分析、填挖分析、剖面分析、距离测量、面积测量、三角测量。Buffer analysis, Visibility analysis, Visible range analysis, Fill analysis, Profile analysis, Distance measurement, Area measurement, Triangulation. 距离测量、面积测量。Distance measurement, Area measurement.
编辑功能
Editing functions
添加地标、绘制线、绘制面、绘制矩形、要素编辑工具。Add placemark, Draw line, Draw surface, Draw rectangle, Feature editing tools. 添加地标、添加多边形、添加路径。Add placemark, Add polygon, Add path.
特色功能
Special features
影像下载、地形下载、提取高程、数据转换、三维特效。Download satellite image and terrain data, Extract elevation, Data conversion, Three-dimensional effects.

表2

奥维互动地图与OruxMaps数据资源与功能对比"

奥维互动地图 Ovital map OruxMaps
在线地图资源
Online map resources
集成较多国内外地图资源, 包括: 百度地图、搜狗地图、Google地图、Google卫星图、Google卫星混合图、Google地形图、Bing卫星图、OpenCycle地形图。Integrate more map resources at home and abroad, including Baidu Map, Sogou Map, Google Map, Google satellite images, Google satellite images with labels, Google terrain data, Bing satellite images, OpenCycle terrain data. 集成在线地图多为国外地图, 需要通过修改地图配置文件增加国内在线地图。Integrated with more foreign online maps; the users need to modify the map configuration file to increase the domestic online maps.
支持操作系统
Supported operating system
Android, IOS (iPhone/ iPad), Windows, WindowsPhone Android
支持数据类型
Supported data types
KML, KMZ, GPX, PLT, DXF, DWG, TXT, CSV, SHP KML, SHP, GPX
软件界面
Software surface
中文操作界面简洁 Simple Chinese interface 界面功能按钮丰富, 部分英文菜单。Rich interface function with buttons partly in English.
操作体验
Operating experience
操作简单, 完全满足野外调查的数据浏览和导航需要。Simple operation; fully meet the needs of data browsing and navigation in field survey. 提供丰富的户外地图浏览功能, 但需要一定的学习才能熟练操作。Have rich functionalities of outdoor map browsing, but the users are required to learn.
特色功能 Special features 数据网络存储 Provide network data storage

图1

外来入侵植物调查规划要素空间关系"

图2

外来入侵植物调查规划软件操作示意"

图3

外业实施中奥维互动地图使用功能截图"

表3

2017年3-5月福建、广西、云南三省入侵植物普查工作统计"

省份
Province
调查日期
Survey date (Month/day)
规划普查样地数量
Number of planned survey sample plots
调查范围 Survey area 外来入侵植物普查数据统计Statistics of invasive alien plants survey
农田
Farmland
湿地
Wetland
港口
Port
覆盖县域数量Number of covered counties 覆盖地理网格数量Number of geographic grids 调查直线距离
Direct distance of survey (km)
调查数据量
Number of records
调查涉及种类
Number of species
福建 Fujian 4/23-25, 5/6-8 40 0 0 27 29 1,100 590 40
广西 Guangxi 3/26-27 10 0 3 7 7 330 82 28
云南 Yunnan 4/12-13 6 2 0 7 7 426 132 28

图4

农田、湿地、港口3种典型生态系统外来入侵植物普查样地和数据采集点空间分布"

图5

无规划的样地与基于规划的样地空间分布"

表4

无规划调查与基于规划的调查指标数据比较"

无规划调查
Unplanned survey
基于规划的调查 Planned survey
覆盖县域数
Number of covered counties
5 7
覆盖调查地理网格数
Number of covered geographic grids
6 7
调查样地数量
Number of sample plots
9 13
调查区生境类型
Habitat types in the survey area
河岸、农田
Riverside,
farmland
农田、港口、高速公路沿线、荒地、公园、园林绿化 Farmland, Ports, areas along the expressway, wasteland, parks, landscaping
调查点间平均直线距离
Average direct distance between
survey points (km)
53.5 30.5
调查点间直线距离标准差
Standard deviation of direct distance
between survey points (km)
68.2 27.7
调查点间行程平均花费时间
Average cost of travel time between
survey points (min)
128 66
调查点间行程花费时间标准差
Standard deviation of travel time
between survey points (min)
127 36
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