生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (2): 202-209.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017305

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

从自然保护区到国家公园体制试点: 三江源国家公园环境覆盖的变化及其对两栖爬行类保护的启示

乔慧捷1, 汪晓意2, 王伟3, 罗振华4, 唐科2, 黄燕2, 5, 杨胜男2, 5, 曹伟伟6, 赵新全2, 7, 江建平2, 胡军华2, *   

  1. 1 .中国科学院动物研究所, 北京 100101
    2 .中国科学院成都生物研究所, 成都 610041
    3 .中国环境科学研究院, 北京 100012
    4.华中师范大学生命科学学院, 武汉 430079
    5.西华师范大学生命科学学院, 四川南充 637009
    6 .浙江大学控制科学与工程学院, 杭州 310027
    7 .中国科学院西北高原生物研究所, 西宁 810008
  • 收稿日期:2017-11-14 接受日期:2018-02-14 出版日期:2018-04-02
  • 通讯作者: 胡军华
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金项目:
    国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0500104, 2016YFC0503303)、中国科学院STS计划(KFJ-STS-ZDTP-013)、国家自然科学基金(31772432, 31770568, 31572290)和中国科学院青年创新促进会(2015304)

From nature reserve to national park system pilot: Changes of environmental coverage in the Three-River-Source National Park and implications for amphibian and reptile conservation

Huijie Qiao1, Xiaoyi Wang2, Wei Wang3, Zhenhua Luo4, Ke Tang2, Yan Huang2, 5, Shengnan Yang2, 5, Weiwei Cao6, Xinquan Zhao2, 7, Jianping Jiang2, Junhua Hu2, *   

  1. 1 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    2 Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041
    3 Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
    4 School of Life Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079
    5 School of Life Sciences, China West Normal University, Nanchong, Sichuan 637009
    6 College of Control Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027
    7 Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008
  • Received:2017-11-14 Accepted:2018-02-14 Online:2018-04-02
  • Contact: Hu Junhua
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

三江源地区具有丰富的高原生物多样性, 是我国重要的生态安全屏障。作为我国第一个体制试点的国家公园, 三江源国家公园将被建成青藏高原大自然保护展示和生态文化传承区。为更好地服务于三江源国家公园建设, 本研究从海拔、年均温和年降水等方面, 在环境空间上系统比较了国家公园与三江源和可可西里自然保护区的差异; 以4种两栖爬行动物即高原林蛙(Rana kukunoris)、倭蛙(Nanorana pleskei)、西藏齿突蟾(Scutiger boulengeri)和青海沙蜥(Phrynocephalus vlangalii)分布点环境条件在国家公园内外的异同为例, 探讨分布受环境制约大、扩散能力弱的物种保护在国家公园建设中可能面临的机遇和挑战。结果表明, 国家公园与已建自然保护区在地理空间上重叠较大, 但它们在自然环境上的差别很明显; 自然保护区内两栖爬行类所偏好的环境条件较多未包含在国家公园内。鉴于三江源的区位特殊性及对气候变化的敏感性, 区域内两栖爬行动物等对环境依赖性强、扩散能力弱物种的有效保护不仅有助于保持物种遗传多样性和区域生态系统的完整性, 也有利于更好地实现国家公园目标定位并服务于生态文明建设。为此, 在国家公园内, 应开展两栖爬行动物种群动态和群落结构的长期监测, 加强基础生物学研究, 掌握环境变化对两栖爬行动物分布、遗传、行为、形态、种群动态及群落可能产生的影响, 实现区域内两栖爬行动物及其类似物种在环境变化下的永续生存。

关键词: 国家公园, 青藏高原, 三江源, 年均温, 年降水, 气候变化, 长期监测, 生物多样性保护

The Three-River-Source (TRS) region, which harbors an evolutionarily unique and impressively large portion of plateau biodiversity, is an important national ecological security shelter zone. Acting as the first system pilot in China, the TRS National Park will be turned into both the exhibition of nature conservation and a heritage area of ecological culture on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. To better contribute to the construction of the TRS National Park, we compared the TRS National Park with the TRS and Kekexili Nature Reserves with respect to elevation, annual mean temperature and annual precipitation. By combining the environmental conditions of the occurrences of four species of amphibians and reptiles (i.e., Rana kukunoris, Nanorana pleskei, Scutiger boulengeri, and Phrynocephalus vlangalii) both inside and outside the national park, we explored potential opportunities and challenges for the conservation of poor-dispersal-ability species (including amphibians and reptiles) during construction of the TRS National Park. While the national park and the nature reserves had large overlap in geographical space, the environmental conditions were different between them. The preferred environmental conditions of the four species were mostly not included in the TRS National Park, but were included in the nature reserves. Given the unique geographical location of the TRS region and its sensitivity to climate change, the effective protection of amphibians and reptiles in this region will not only contribute to maintaining genetic diversity of species and the integrality of regional ecosystems, but also will help to achieve the goal of the TRS National Park and assist with the construction of ecological civilization. Thus, within the TRS National Park, to strengthen basic biological research, it is important to conduct long-term monitoring studies of population dynamics and community structure. Based on this, the potential effects of environmental changes on the distribution, genetic diversity, behavior, morphological traits, population dynamics and community of amphibians and reptiles could be understood, with the aim of achieving their sustainable survival within the TRS National Park in the face of global change.

Key words: national park, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, Three-River-Source, annual mean temperature, annual precipitation, climate change, long-term monitoring, biodiversity conservation

图1

三江源国家公园与自然保护区地理空间分布比较"

图2

三江源国家公园与自然保护区海拔、年均温和年降水量不同水平上的密度比较"

图3

三江源国家公园与自然保护区重叠与非重叠区域海拔、年均温和年降水量比较"

图4

同时满足3个条件(海拔 < 4,200 m、年均温 > -3℃且年降水 > 500 mm)区域(黑色)的空间分布"

图5

高原林蛙、倭蛙、西藏齿突蟾和青海沙蜥分布点的海拔、年均温和年降水量直方图与密度曲线"

表1

高原林蛙、倭蛙、西藏齿突蟾和青海沙蜥分布点的海拔、年均温和年降水量统计表"

变量
Variable
阈值
Threshold
物种
Species
分布点数量 No. of occurrences 不属于国家公园环境空间的比例
Proportion outside the environmental space of National Park (%)
大于阈值
> Threshold
小于阈值
< Threshold
海拔
Elevation
4,200 m 倭蛙 Nanorana pleskei 7 64 90.1
青海沙蜥 Phrynocephalus vlangalii 23 188 89.1
高原林蛙 Rana kukunoris 3 101 97.1
西藏齿突蟾 Scutiger boulengeri 36 64 64.0
年均温
Annual mean
temperature
-3℃ 倭蛙 Nanorana pleskei 68 3 95.8
青海沙蜥 Phrynocephalus vlangalii 192 19 91.0
高原林蛙 Rana kukunoris 104 0 100
西藏齿突蟾 Scutiger boulengeri 90 10 90.0
年降水量
Annual precipitation
500 mm 倭蛙 Nanorana pleskei 69 2 97.2
青海沙蜥 Phrynocephalus vlangalii 29 182 13.7
高原林蛙 Rana kukunoris 84 20 80.8
西藏齿突蟾 Scutiger boulengeri 76 24 76.0
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