生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (3): 315-325.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017235

• 保护论坛 • 上一篇    

中国大陆自然保护地概况及分类体系构想

彭杨靖, 樊简, 邢韶华, 崔国发*()   

  1. 北京林业大学自然保护区学院, 北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2017-09-01 接受日期:2018-01-26 出版日期:2018-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 崔国发 E-mail:fa6716@163.com
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金项目:
    中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(2015ZCQ-BH-02)

Overview and classification outlook of natural protected areas in mainland China

Yangjing Peng, Jian Fan, Shaohua Xing, Guofa Cui*()   

  1. School of Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
  • Received:2017-09-01 Accepted:2018-01-26 Online:2018-03-20
  • Contact: Cui Guofa E-mail:fa6716@163.com
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

自1956年我国建立第一个自然保护区以来, 截至2016年底, 我国已建立了约10种类型且数量庞大的自然保护地。随着我国生态文明建设的不断发展,建立以国家公园为主体的自然保护地体系不仅是国家提出的重要任务,也是我国自然保护地未来发展的必然趋势。然而, 由于我国目前各类自然保护地尚无统一的分类体系, 已有的自然保护地之间存在着概念界定不清、分类体系混乱、主导功能模糊、地理空间重叠等诸多问题。这不仅严重阻碍了我国现有自然保护地的优化整合和国家公园体制建设,而且不便于开展国际交流。因此迫切需要明确自然保护地的定义, 建立一套适用于我国且有利于国际交流的自然保护地分类体系。本文在介绍自然保护地的概念与内涵,以及我国10类自然保护地建设和分类体系现状的基础上,重点梳理了我国自然保护地的发展历程, 比较了各类自然保护地的定义、内涵以及主要分类依据,并提出了3种能够涵盖目前各类自然保护地的分类体系构想,它们分别基于IUCN保护区分类系统、保护对象自然属性和管理目标社会属性。希望这些构想能在未来自然保护地分类体系的研究中起到抛砖引玉的作用。

关键词: 自然保护地, 分类体系, 国家公园体制, 整合

By the end of 2016, China had established approximately 10 types and a large number of natural protected areas since the first nature reserve was established in 1956. With ecological civilization construction, to establish a natural protected areas system based on national parks is not only an important project put forward by the state, but also the inevitable trend for future development. However, problems including ambiguous concepts, confused classification systems, vague dominant functions, and geospatial overlap also accompanied these natural protected areas. There is still no unified classification system that can be applied in all types of natural protected areas in China, this lack of classification system has seriously impeded ongoing optimization and integration of the existing natural protected areas and the construction of a national park system and is not convenient for international academic exchanges. Therefore, defining natural protected areas is urgently needed and is essential for the establishment of a classification system that is applicable to our country and conducive to international communication. Here we mainly discuss the concepts and connotation of natural protected areas in China, tease out their development processes, and summarize the construction and classification of 10 types of natural protected areas, while comparing the similarities and differences of these concepts and classifications. Finally, based on the IUCN protected area management classification system, the natural attribution of protected objects, and social attribution of management objects, we propose three classification systems to provide a reference for establishing a natural protected area classification system and national park system. We hope these systems will play a role in the study of the classification system of natural protected areas in the future.

Key words: protected area, classification system, national park system, integration

图1

自然保护地类型数量随时间变化的4个阶段"

表1

我国大陆自然保护地的数量及面积统计(数据截至2016年底)"

类型 Type 国家级 National-level 省级 Province-level 市级 City-level 县级 County-level 总数 Total 主管部门
Affiliation
数量
Number
面积(万公
顷)
Area (×104 ha)
数量
Num-
ber
面积(万公顷)
Area (×104 ha)
数量
Number
面积(万公顷)
Area (×104 ha)
数量
Number
面积(万公顷)
Area (×104 ha)
数量
Number
面积 (万公顷)
Area (×104 ha)
自然保护区
Nature reserve
446 9,695 871 3,767 403 445 1,030 826 2,750 14,733 多部门管理
Multiple authorities
风景名胜区
Scenic and
historical area
225 10.36 737 9.2 - - - - 1,025 19.56 住房和城乡建设部
MOHURD
森林公园
Forest park
827 1,251.06 1,402 417.99 - - 1,005 132.66 3,234 1,801.71 国家林业局
SFA
湿地公园
Wetland park
正式 Official
98
试点 Pilot
607
36 274 283 - - - - 979 319 国家林业局
SFA
沙漠公园(试点)
Pilot desert park
55 29.73 - - - - - - 55 29.73 国家林业局
SFA
地质公园
Geopark
批准建立189处, 已授予资格52处
189 were approved and 52 got the qualification
1,199 235 缺少数据
Lack of data
- - 0 0 424 1,199 + 国土资源部MOLR
海洋特别保护区
Special marine reserve
59 696 0 0 - - - - 59 696 国家海洋局SOA
水利风景区
Water park
719 缺少数据
Lack of data
1,781 缺少数据
Lack of data
- - - - 2,500 缺少数据Lack of data 水利部
MOWR
水产种质资源
保护区
Fishery genetic resources reserve
523 1,330.92 缺少
数据Lack of data
缺少数据Lack of data - - - - 523+ 1,330.92 农业部
MOA
国家公园体制试点
Pilot national park
9 1,685.49 10 3,059 - - - - 19 4,744.49 发改委牵头
NDRC
总计
Total
3,753 15,933.56 +
(未除去重叠区域)
(Did not
remove the overlap)
5,310+ 7,536.19
(未除去重叠区域)
(Did not remove the overlap)
403 445 2,035 958.66
(未除去重叠区域)
(Did not remove the overlap)
11,568+ 24,873.41 (未除去重叠区域)
(Did not remove the overlap)
MOHURD, Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People’s Republic of China; SFA, The State Forestry Administration of the People’s Republic of China; MOLR, Ministry of Land and Resources of the People’s Republic of China; SOA, State Oceanic Administration of the People’s Republic of China; MOWR, The Ministry of Water Resources of the People’s Republic of China; MOA, Ministry of Agriculture of the People’s Republic of China; NDRC, National Development and Reform Commission.

表2

基于IUCN保护区分类系统提出的中国自然保护地分类体系"

IUCN保护区分类体系
IUCN protected area classification system.
对照类别
Control category
现有自然保护地归类
Existing natural protected area categories
I: Strict Nature Reserve 严格自然保护区 Strict Nature Reserve
关键特征: 具有极高原真性和完整性的自然生态系统以及极高生物多样性价值; 区域内严格限制人为活动。
Critical features: Natural ecosystems with a high level of authenticity and integrity, high biodiversity value, and strict limits on human activities.
自然生态系统类型的自然保护区(包括森林、草原与草甸、荒漠、内陆湿地和水域、海洋和海岸带生态系统5个类型); 海洋特别保护区中的海洋生态保护区类型
Nature reserve protecting natural ecosystem (including five ecosystem types: forest, grass land and meadow, desert, inland wetlands and waters, marine and coastal zone); Marine ecological reserve in marine special reserve.
II: National Park 国家公园 National Park
关键特征: 具有国家代表性的大面积自然生态系统; 可实现自然资源科学保护和合理利用的特定陆地或海洋区域。
Critical features: Specific land or marine areas which have large-scale natural ecosystems with national representation; and natural resources that can be scientifically protected and rationally used.
国家公园体制试点中将被正式批准的国家公园
National park pilots that will be approved as a formal national park
III: Natural Monument
or Feature
自然遗迹保护区 Natural Relic Reserve
关键特征: 地质遗迹或古生物遗迹
Critical features: Geological relics or paleontological relics
自然遗迹类自然保护区(包括地质遗迹类型自然保护区和古生物遗迹类型自然保护区); 地质公园
Nature reserve protecting nature relics (including geological relics and paleontological relics); Geopark
IV: Habitat/Species
Management
Area
野生生物保护区 Wildlife Reserve
关键特征: 重点保护野生动植物的集中分布地及其生境
Critical features: The concentration area of key protected wild plants, animals and their habitats
野生生物类自然保护区(包括野生动物类型的自然保护区; 野生植物类型的自然保护区)
Wildlife nature reserve protecting wildlife (including wild animals and wild plants)
V: Protected Landscape/
Seascape
自然景观保护区 Natural Landscape Protected Area
关键特征: 拥有优美、突出的自然景观, 在保护自然景观和自然生态过程的同时, 可开展一定的观赏游憩活动。
Critical features: Areas with beautiful, outstanding natural landscapes and in the preservation of the natural landscape and ecological process, certain ornamental recreation activities are available.
风景名胜区(仅包括自然景观类); 森林公园; 湿地公园; 水利风景区(仅包括水库型、湿地型、自然河湖型); 海洋公园; 沙漠公园
Scenic and history area (including natural landscape); Forest park; Wetland park; Water park (Including reservoirs, wetlands and natural lakes); Ocean park; Desert park
VI: Protected Area with Sustainable Use of Natural
Resources
自然资源保护区 Natural Resources Protected Area
关键特征: 用于保持资源的可持续利用
Critical features: Maintain the sustainable use of resources
海洋特别保护区中的海洋资源保护区; 海洋特别保护区中的海洋特殊地理条件保护区; 水产种质资源保护区
Marine resources reserve in marine special reserve; Special geographic marine reserve in marine special reserve; Fishery genetic resources reserve
[1] Chen G, Xia ZK, Yu H (2001) Concept, types, and functions of forest park. Forest Resources Management, (3), 41-45. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[陈戈, 夏正楷, 俞晖 (2001) 森林公园的概念、类型与功能. 林业资源管理, (3), 41-45.]
[2] Deguignet M, Juffe-Bignoli D, Harrison J, Macsharry B, Burgess N, Kingston N (2014) 2014 United Nations List of Protected Areas. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK.
[3] Dudley N (2008) Guidelines for Applying Protected Area Management Categories. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
[4] Feng Z, Xie XC, Zhang L, Wang SH (2016) The classification survey and evaluation method for water conservancy landscape resources. Water Resources Development Research, 16(3), 47-53. (in Chinese)
[冯冲, 谢祥财, 张蕾, 汪升华 (2016) 水利风景资源分类调查与评价方法. 水利发展研究, 16(3), 47-53.]
[5] General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China(1993) Principle for Categories and Grades of Nature Reserves. Standards Press of China, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[国家技术监督局, 国家环境保护局(1993) 自然保护区类型与级别划分原则. GB/T 14529-1993. 中国标准出版社, 北京.]
[6] General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China, Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of China(2015) Nature Reserve Terminology. GB/T 31759-2015. Standard Press of China, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[中华人民共和国国家质量监督检验检疫总局, 中国国家标准化管理委员会(2015) 自然保护区名词术语. GB/T 31759-2015. 中国标准出版社, 北京.]
[7] Hou LS (2005) The development of national geopark and its developmental phases. Contemporary Economic Management, 27(1), 63-65. (in Chinese with English abstract)
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-0461.2005.01.014
[后立胜 (2005) 国家地质公园的发展及其阶段性. 当代经济管理, 27(1), 63-65.]
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-0461.2005.01.014
[8] Jia JZ (2012) Development and planning characteristics of scenic areas of China. Chinese Landscape Architecture, (11), 11-15. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[贾建中(2012) 我国风景名胜区发展和规划特性. 中国园林, (11), 11-15.]
[9] Jiang MK, Wang Z, Zhu GQ, Tao SM, Zhou HL (2004) Chinese nature reserve classification standard based on IUCN Protected Area Categories. Rural Eco-Environment, 20(2), 1-6. (in Chinese with English abstract)
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-4831.2004.02.001
[蒋明康, 王智, 朱广庆, 陶思明, 周海丽 (2004) 基于IUCN保护区分类系统的中国自然保护区分类标准研究. 生态与农村环境学报, 20(2), 1-6.]
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-4831.2004.02.001
[10] Li BQ, Wu CC, Wu ZW (2009) The development roadmap analysis on China’s forest parks. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 29, 2749-2756. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[李柏青, 吴楚材, 吴章文 (2009) 中国森林公园的发展方向. 生态学报, 29, 2749-2756.]
[11] Li XL, Han F (2015) Elucidations on categorization of China’s scenic and historic interest areas and its dilemmas. Urban Development Studies, 22(4), 74-79.
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-3862.2015.04.012
(in Chinese with English abstract) [李晓黎, 韩锋 (2015) 我国风景名胜区分类现状及其症结剖析. 城市发展研究, 22(4), 74-79.]
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-3862.2015.04.012
[12] Liu DP, He ZP, Zhang Y, Yue YJ (2010) The development of special marine reserves and policy recommendations. China Population, Resources and Environment, 20(S1), 157-160. (in Chinese)
[刘东朴, 贺志鹏, 张英, 岳英洁 (2010) 海洋特别保护区的发展历程与政策建议. 中国人口、资源与环境, 20(S1), 157-160.]
[13] Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Construction of the People’s Republic of China(2008)Standard for Scenic and Historic Areas Classification. CJJ/T 121-2008. China Architecture & Building Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[中华人民共和国住房和城乡建设部(2008) 风景名胜区分类标准. CJJ/T 121-2008. 中国建筑工业出版社, 北京.]
[14] Tang FL, Wang MJ (2015) Discussion on the classification of national park. Forestry Construction, (5), 25-31. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[唐芳林, 王梦君 (2015) 国家公园类型划分的探讨. 林业建设, (5), 25-31.]
[15] Wang J, Lu YQ, Qian XC (2013) Research on the classification and evaluation of water conservancy tourism resource in Hangzhou, 13(8), 80-84. (in Chinese)
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-1408.2013.08.021
[汪健, 陆一奇, 钱学诚 (2013) 杭州市水利旅游资源分类与评价研究. 水利发展研究, 13(8), 80-84.]
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-1408.2013.08.021
[16] Wang L, Chen A, Gao Z (2011) An exploration into a diversified world of National Park Systems: China’s prospects within a global context. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 21, 882-896.
doi: 10.1007/s11442-011-0887-9
[17] Wang XP, Cui GF (2003) Construction and Management of Nature Reserves. Chemical Industry Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1003-6563.2003.02.032
[王献溥, 崔国发 (2003) 自然保护区建设与管理. 化学工业出版社, 北京.]
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1003-6563.2003.02.032
[18] Wu SM (2003) A list and classification of China’s national geological parks. Science & Technology Review, 21(5), 63-64. (in Chinese)
doi: 10.3321/j.issn:1000-7857.2003.05.019
[吴胜明 (2003) 中国国家地质公园的名录和分类. 科技导报, 21(5), 63-64.]
doi: 10.3321/j.issn:1000-7857.2003.05.019
[19] Yang R (2016) Study on National Parks and Protected Areas. China Architecture and Building Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[杨锐 (2016) 国家公园与自然保护地研究. 中国建筑工业出版社, 北京.]
[20] Yang YF (2014) Analysis of national wetland park construction and development. Forest Resources Management, (4), 39-45. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[杨永峰 (2014) 我国国家湿地公园建设与发展问题浅析. 林业资源管理, (4), 39-45.]
[21] Yu FL, Huang ZF, Shang ZY (2012) Value connotation and development course and running status of water park. Economic Geography, 32(12), 169-175. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[余凤龙, 黄震方, 尚正永 (2012) 水利风景区的价值内涵、发展历程与运行现状的思考. 经济地理, 32(12), 169-175.]
[22] Yunnan Provincial Bureau of Quality and Technical Supervision (2009) National Park-Basic Criteria. DB53/T 298-2009. (in Chinese)
[云南省质量技术监督局 (2009) 国家公园基本条件. DB53/T 298-2009.]
[23] Zhang XW, Tang FL (2014) Chinese National Park Exploration and Practice. China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[张希武, 唐芳林 (2014) 中国国家公园的探索与实践. 中国林业出版社, 北京.]
[24] Zhao SY, Shi FF (2006) The Concept of Wetland and Design of Wetland Park. Southeast University Press., Nanjing (in Chinese)
[赵思毅, 侍菲菲 (2006) 湿地概念与湿地公园设计. 东南大学出版社, 南京.]
[1] 李建军, 刘恋, 陈迪马, 许丰伟, 程军回, 白永飞. 底座入土深度和面积对典型草原土壤呼吸测定结果的影响[J]. 植物生态学报, 2019, 43(2): 152-164.
[2] 唐芳林, 闫颜, 刘文国. 我国国家公园体制建设进展[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(2): 123-127.
[3] 吕忠梅. 以国家公园为主体的自然保护地体系立法思考[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(2): 128-136.
[4] 王毅, 黄宝荣. 中国国家公园体制改革: 回顾与前瞻[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(2): 117-122.
[5] 王宇飞,苏红巧,赵鑫蕊,苏杨,罗敏. 基于保护地役权的自然保护地适应性管理方法探讨: 以钱江源国家公园体制试点区为例[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(1): 88-96.
[6] 李双,孙孝平,方彦君,张银龙,曹铭昌. 钱江源国家公园体制试点区农户生计资本评价及其空间特征[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(1): 64-75.
[7] 刘方正, 杜金鸿, 周越, 黄志旁, 李延鹏, 王伟, 肖文. 无人机和地面相结合的自然保护地生物多样性监测技术与实践[J]. 生物多样性, 2018, 26(8): 905-917.
[8] 刁励玮,李平,刘卫星,徐姗,乔春连,曾辉,刘玲莉. 草地生态系统生物量在不同气候及多时间尺度上对氮添加和增雨处理的响应[J]. 植物生态学报, 2018, 42(8): 818-830.
[9] 杨青霄, 田大栓, 曾辉, 牛书丽. 降水格局改变背景下土壤呼吸变化的主要影响因素及其调控过程[J]. 植物生态学报, 2017, 41(12): 1239-1250.
[10] 朱朝东, 罗世孝, 周欣, 陈华燕, 张冠阳. 地球生物基因组计划与生物分类学[J]. 生物多样性, 2017, 25(11): 1251-1254.
[11] 刘建全. “整合物种概念”和“分化路上的物种”[J]. 生物多样性, 2016, 24(9): 1004-1008.
[12] 黎磊, 耿宇鹏, 兰志春, 陈家宽, 宋志平. 异质生境中水生植物表型可塑性的研究进展[J]. 生物多样性, 2016, 24(2): 216-227.
[13] 王伟, 辛利娟, 杜金鸿, 陈冰, 刘方正, 张立博, 李俊生. 自然保护地保护成效评估: 进展与展望[J]. 生物多样性, 2016, 24(10): 1177-1188.
[14] 胡俊靖, 陈双林, 郭子武, 陈卫军, 杨清平, 李迎春. 美丽箬竹水分生理整合的分株比例效应——基于叶片抗氧化系统与光合色素[J]. 植物生态学报, 2015, 39(7): 762-772.
[15] 李明泽, 王斌, 范文义, 赵丹丹. 东北林区净初级生产力及大兴安岭地区林火干扰影响的模拟研究[J]. 植物生态学报, 2015, 39(4): 322-332.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed