生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (12): 1331-1338.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017207

• 研究报告: 动物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

华东武夷山-仙霞岭地区淡水鱼类区系特征及其动物地理区划

宋小晶1,2, 唐文乔1,2,*(), 张亚1,2   

  1. 1 .海洋动物系统分类与进化上海高校重点实验室, 上海 201306
    2 .上海海洋大学水产科学国家级实验教学示范中心, 上海 201306
  • 收稿日期:2017-07-20 接受日期:2017-12-19 出版日期:2017-12-20 发布日期:2017-12-10
  • 通讯作者: 唐文乔
  • 基金资助:
    科技基础性工作专项(2015FY110200)

Freshwater fish fauna and zoogeographical divisions in the Wuyi-Xianxialing Mountains of eastern China

Xiaojing Song1,2, Wenqiao Tang1,2,*(), Ya Zhang1,2   

  1. 1 Shanghai Universities Key Laboratory of Marine Animal Taxonomy and Evolution, Shanghai 201306
    2 National Demonstration Center for Experimental Fisheries Science Education, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306
  • Received:2017-07-20 Accepted:2017-12-19 Online:2017-12-20 Published:2017-12-10
  • Contact: Tang Wenqiao

摘要:

武夷山脉-仙霞岭是长江鄱阳湖水系与我国东部独流入海的钱塘江、瓯江、闽江和韩江等水系的分水岭, 是中国陆地生物多样性保护的关键地区之一。本文对武夷山-仙霞岭地区5个水系的111个上游江段鱼类进行了采集, 获得标本13,000余号, 并结合文献资料对该地区的鱼类区系作了分析。结果显示, 该地区共分布有鱼类282种, 其中纯淡水土著鱼类239种, 隶属于6目23科101属。鲤形目、鲈形目、鲇形目各有181种、29种和22种, 分别占纯淡水鱼类的75.73%、12.13%和9.21%, 是本地区鱼类组成的主体。东亚特有的江河平原鱼类和南亚暖水性鱼类各有109种和51种, 分别占纯淡水鱼类的45.61%和21.34%。5个水系之间鱼类的共有种较多, 平均相似度均在50%以上。但东部4条独流入海河流, 自北往南江河平原鱼类所占比例逐渐下降, 而南亚暖水性鱼类则逐渐增加。鱼类区系的聚类分析显示, 鄱阳湖、钱塘江、瓯江和闽江聚为一类, 韩江单独构成另一类。分析表明, 武夷山脉-仙霞岭并没有对淡水鱼类形成很强的阻隔作用, 整个区域都是东洋区的组成部分。但鉴于已经出现的一些南北差异, 本文认为可以将东南部的韩江水系划归南东亚亚区的华南小区, 鄱阳湖水系与钱塘江、瓯江和闽江水系划归华东小区。

关键词: 中国东南沿海, 淡水鱼类, 物种多样性, 区系特征, 动物地理区划

Abstract:

The watershed of the Wuyi-Xianxialing Mountains comprises the Poyang Lake water system of the Yangtze River basin and independent coastal rivers of eastern China, including the Qiantang River, Oujiang River, Minjiang River, and Hanjiang River. It is a key area for the conservation of biodiversity in Chinese ecosystems. In this study, fish surveys were conducted in 111 upstream sections of five river basins draining the Wuyi-Xianxialing Mountains and over 13,000 specimens were collected. The fish fauna of this area, on the basis of our investigations and records from historical literature, included 282 species, of which 239 were freshwater fishes, belonging to 101 genera, 23 families, and 6 orders. The orders of Cypriniformes, Perciformes, and Siluriformes supported the majority of fish composition in this area, with 181, 29, and 22 species, respectively, accounting for 75.73%, 12.13%, and 9.21% of total freshwater fish found. There were 109 fish species that were the major component of fish composition of the river plains of East Asia and 51 species of warm water fish with Southeast Asian origin, accounting for 45.61% and 21.34% of the total freshwater fishes, respectively. There were many species shared among the five river basins, and the average faunal resemblance of any two rivers was more than 50%. For the four substantive rivers in the eastern region, from north to south, the proportion of endemic fishes in the river plains of East Asia gradually decreased, and the proportion of warm water fishes of Southeast Asian origin gradually increased. Clustering analysis of fish fauna demonstrates that Poyang Lake, Qiantang River, Oujiang River, and Minjiang River are clustered into one class, while Hanjiang River forms the other class. This analysis indicates that the Wuyi-Xianxialing Mountains do not form a strong barrier for freshwater fishes, and that the whole district of the Wuyi-Xianxialing Mountains should be a component of the Oriental Region. In view of the differences between the north and the south, this paper argues that Hanjiang River in the southeast belongs to the South China Area of the South-east Asiatic Subregion, while Poyang Lake, Qiantang River, Oujiang River, and Minjiang River belong to the East China Area.

Key words: coastal areas of southeast China, freshwater fishes, species diversity, characteristics of fish fauna, zoogeographical divisions