生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (10): 1137-1143.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017177

• 保护论坛 • 上一篇    

我国典型城市外来野生脊椎动物贸易状况及管理对策

梦梦1, 2, 马建章1, *(), 尹峰2, 陈文汇3, 纪建伟4   

  1. 1 东北林业大学野生动物资源学院, 哈尔滨 150040
    2 中国野生动物保护协会, 北京 100714
    3 北京林业大学经济管理学院, 北京 100083
    4 北京市野生动物救护中心, 北京 100029
  • 收稿日期:2017-06-13 接受日期:2017-10-20 出版日期:2017-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 马建章 E-mail:jianzhangma@163.com
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(71573018)

Investigation of the current trade situation of alien vertebrate species in China and analysis of corresponding management strategies

Meng Meng1, 2, Jianzhang Ma1, *(), Feng Yin2, Wenhui Chen3, Jianwei Ji4   

  1. 1 College of Wildlife Resources, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040
    2 China Wildlife Conservation Association, Beijing 100714
    3 School of Economics & Management, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083;
    4 Beijing Wildlife Rescue & Rehabilitation Center, Beijing, 100029;
  • Received:2017-06-13 Accepted:2017-10-20 Online:2017-10-20
  • Contact: Ma Jianzhang E-mail:jianzhangma@163.com

为了系统了解我国宠物市场外来物种的贸易状况, 防范外来物种造成生态灾害, 制定更加有效的外来物种管理政策, 在相关部门的支持下, 我们采用重点调查法和实地踏查法, 对北京、上海、南京、广州、哈尔滨等5个城市的20个宠物市场的外来野生动物进行了实地调查。结果表明: (1)在5个城市中, 共发现野生外来贸易物种96种, 其中受威胁物种(包括极危、濒危和易危三类) 29种, 占记录外来贸易物种总数的30%; 列入濒危野生动植物种国际贸易公约(CITES)附录的物种35种, 占记录外来贸易物种总数的36%。(2)北京外来物种数和列入IUCN红色名录的物种数最多; 广州市仅在本地区调查中发现的物种数和列入CITES附录I/II的物种数最多。(3) 41%的物种、61%的CITES附录物种贸易规模小于10只。(4) 45%的物种贸易价格在100-1,000元/只。我国宠物市场外来野生动物贸易应当强化对外来物种贸易全过程监管、打击非法贸易、规范放生行为和强化公众教育。

关键词: 野生动物, 外来物种, 贸易种类, 贸易规模, 贸易价格

This research surveyed the current situation on the trade of alien species in pet markets in Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing, Guangzhou, and Harbin, in order to systematically understand the trade scale, to prevent the ecological disasters with alien species, and to develop effective management policies. The investigation was undertaken in 20 pet markets in five cities using the key survey and on-the-spot investigation methods. Results are as follows: (1) 96 alien wildlife species were recorded, among which 29 were threatened species, accounting for 30%, and 35 were CITES Appendix species, accounting for 36%. (2) The highest number of alien species and IUCN red listed species were found in Beijing. However, the greatest number of species found in the local survey and the number of species included in CITES Appendix I / II were found in Guangzhou. (3) The trade volume of 41% of species and 61% of CITES Appendix species were less than 10. (4) The trade prices of 45% of species were between 100 and 1,000 RMB, which was the acceptable price range for most consumers. According to this study, important measures must be undertaken to strengthen trade supervision, combat illegal trade, regulate behavior of animal releasing, and raise public awareness on controlling the trade of alien wildlife in Chinese pet markets.

Key words: wildlife, alien species, trade type, trade scale, trade price

表1

外来野生动物贸易物种在不同城市的种类和数量"

城市
City
物种数
No. of species
仅在该城市发现的物种数
No. of the species only found in the city
IUCN红色名录近危级别以上物种数
No. of species over Near Threatened in IUCN
CITES附录I和II的物种数
No. of species in CITES
Appendix I/ II
北京 Beijing 47 24 13 9
广州 Guangzhou 38 26 11 18
上海 Shanghai 28 8 10 4
哈尔滨 Harbin 24 7 9 1
南京 Nanjing 10 1 3 6

表2

调查到的外来野生动物贸易物种的数量分布"

贸易数量等级
Level of trade volume
物种数
No. of species
(%)
CITES附录I和II的物种数
No. of species in CITES Appendix I/II (%)
< 10只 39 (41) 20 (61)
10-100只 24 (25) 3 (9)
100-1,000只 31 (32) 10 (30)
>1,000只 2 (2) 0 (0)

表3

记录于IUCN红色名录中的物种组成"

受危等级
Endangered level
物种数
Number of species
百分比(%)
Percentage
极危 Critically Endangered 4 4
濒危 Endangered 4 4
易危 Vulnerable 13 14
近危 Near Threatened 8 8
无危 Least Concern 51 53
未评估 Not evaluated 16 17
合计 Total 96 100

表4

记录于CITES附录中的物种组成"

CITES附录
CITES Appendix
物种数
Number of species
百分比(%)
Percentage
I 5 5
II 28 29
III 2 2
未列入附录
Not included in the appendix
61 64
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