生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (9): 972-980.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017163

• 研究报告: 植物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

地锦苗在石灰岩土壤和红壤生境中的繁殖成功的比较

黄至欢1, 陆奇丰1, 陈颖卓2, *()   

  1. 1 广西喀斯特植物保育与恢复生态学重点实验室, 广西壮族自治区中国科学院广西植物研究所, 广西桂林 541006
    2 湖南第一师范学院城南书院, 长沙 410205
  • 收稿日期:2017-06-02 接受日期:2017-09-04 出版日期:2017-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 陈颖卓 E-mail:yingzhuochen2011@163.com
  • 作者简介:# 共同第一作者
  • 基金项目:
    科技基础资源调查专项资助“中国西南地区极小种群野生植物调查与种质保存”(2017FY100100)、广西植物研究所基本业务费(GZY16003)、广西喀斯特植物保育与恢复生态学重点实验室开放基金(1526222)

Comparative study on reproductive success of Corydalis sheareri (Papaveraceae) between alkaline limestone soil and red soil habitats in a karst area

Zhihuan Huang1, Qifeng Lu1, Yingzhuo Chen2, *()   

  1. 1 Guangxi Key Laboratory of Plant Conservation and Restoration Ecology in Karst Terrain, Guangxi Institute of Botany, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guilin, Guangxi 541006
    2 Chengnan Academy, Hunan First Normal University, Changsha 410205
  • Received:2017-06-02 Accepted:2017-09-04 Online:2017-09-20
  • Contact: Chen Yingzhuo E-mail:yingzhuochen2011@163.com
  • About author:# Co-first authors

喀斯特地区石灰岩土壤和红壤间断分布的特点是影响该地区植物群落内物种组成的最重要环境因素之一。为了研究不同生境中植物的繁殖对策及对生境的适应方式, 本文以生长在石灰岩土壤和红壤两种生境中的地锦苗(Corydalis sheareri)为研究对象, 调查了两种生境中土壤的理化性质, 并开展了开花物候、花部特征、传粉者种类和访问频率及繁殖成功的比较研究。结果显示, 石灰岩土壤中有机质、全氮、全钙的含量以及pH值均比红壤高, 而土壤含水量则比红壤低。地锦苗的单花期在两种土壤生境中没有显著差异, 但石灰岩土壤中的地锦苗植株明显比生长于红壤上的植株矮, 始花期比红壤中的推迟1周左右, 盛花期持续时间短, 并且提前进入末花期。花序大小、花长、开口大小、距长及柱头直径在两种土壤生境中都没有显著差异。地锦苗的繁育系统为专性异交, 繁殖成功依赖传粉者。访花者主要是以花蜜为报酬的黑颚条蜂(Anthophora melanognatha), 并且在两种生境中的访花频率没有显著差异。两种生境中地锦苗的结籽率没有差异, 但生长在石灰岩土壤上的地锦苗坐果率明显低于红壤上的。我们的结果表明, 结籽率没有差异可能是由于传粉者的丰度不受生境影响, 导致两种生境中的地锦苗具有相同水平的传粉服务; 而土壤性质的差异可能是导致两种生境中地锦苗花期物候和坐果率差异的重要原因。

关键词: 地锦苗, 土壤类型, 花期物候, 繁育系统, 结籽率, 坐果率, 繁殖成功

The discontinuous distribution between alkaline limestone soil with high calcium content and acidic red soil with low calcium content is characteristic of karst areas, and strongly affects plant species composition in natural communities. Whether the soil types affect plant reproductive success, however, remains unknown. Two populations of Corydalis sheareri, a species commonly occurring in alkaline limestone soil and acidic red soil, were investigated. The soil properties of the two habitats were examined, and flowering phenology, floral traits, floral visitor types and their behavior, breeding system and reproductive success were compared. Organic matter, total nitrogen, total calcium, and pH value were higher in the limestone soil, while soil moisture content was lower than that found in the red soil. Floral longevity was not significantly different between plants from the two habitats. However, plants found in the limestone soil were shorter in height and bloomed one week later with a shorter flowering period (4 weeks) than those found in the red soil (6 weeks). Floral traits (inflorescence size, flower length, opening size, spur length and stigma diameter) were not significantly different between the two habitats. Corydalis sheareri was obligately xenogamous, with sexual reproduction dependent on insect pollinators. The major floral visitor was Anthophora melanognatha, a long-tongued nectar collecting bee. Bee visit frequency and seed set per flower were not significantly different between the two habitats, but fruit set per plant in the limestone soil was significantly lower. Our results indicated that, no difference in the seed set could be explained by similar pollinator abundance, while the differences of flowering phenology and fruit set could be caused by differences in the soil properties between the two habitats.

Key words: Corydalis sheareri, soil property, flowering phenology, breeding system, fruit set, seed set, reproductive success

图1

(A)在酸性红壤中生长的地锦苗; (B)在长有苔藓的洞穴外的碱性石灰岩土壤上生长的地锦苗; (C)黑颚条蜂访问地锦苗; (D)长喙天蛾访问地锦苗。"

表1

地锦苗两种生境中土壤特性的比较"

土壤特性 Soil property 样本量 Sample size 石灰岩土壤 Limestone soil 红壤 Red soil T P
含水量 Moisture (%) 3 21.73 ± 0.98 25.15 ± 0.62 2.95 0.04
有机质 Organic matter (g/kg) 3 61.10 ± 1.36 28.37 ± 1.44 -18.36 <0.001
全氮 Total nitrogen (mg/kg) 3 214.36 ± 7.31 87.46 ± 5.89 -13.53 <0.001
全磷 Total phosphorus (mg/kg) 3 11.09 ± 0.81 13.32 ± 1.14 1.52 0.20
全钾 Total potassium (mg/kg) 3 121.35 ± 7.17 110.06 ± 6.45 -1.17 0.31
全钙 Total calcium (g/kg) 3 28.62 ± 3.84 3.18 ± 1.50 -6.54 0.003
pH 3 7.75 ± 0.12 6.29 ± 0.08 -10.27 <0.001

图2

两种生境中地锦苗的花期物候"

表2

两种生境中地锦苗的花部特征比较"

花部特征 Floral characters 样本量 Sample size 红壤 Red soil 石灰岩土壤 Limestone soil T P
植株高度 Plant height (cm) 20 34.8 ± 1.8 30.2 ± 1.3 -2.08 0.04
花数/花序 Flower number/inflorescence 20 20.6 ± 0.7 19.7 ± 0.7 -0.95 0.34
花长 Floral length (mm) 20 27.96 ± 0.24 27.39 ± 0.22 -1.76 0.09
开口大小 Opening size (mm) 20 13.02 ± 0.27 12.45 ± 0.23 -1.62 0.11
距长 Spur length (mm) 20 17.45 ± 0.15 17.12 ± 0.17 -0.98 0.34
柱头直径 Stigma diameter (mm) 20 1.54 ± 0.01 1.49 ± 0.02 -1.86 0.07

图3

两种生境中地锦苗的3种访花者的访问频率比较。相同的字母(分大小写)表示同种访花者在两种土壤生境中的访问频率没有差异, 不同字母表示同种访花者在两种土壤生境中的访问频率具有明显差异; *表示同种土壤生境中黑颚条蜂与其他两种访问者的访问频率均具有显著差异。"

表3

两种生境中地锦苗的访花者类型和访问频率比较。统计使用GLM分析, 同一列不同字母代表同种访花者在不同居群间差异显著(P < 0.05)。"

土壤类型
Soil type
样地
Plot
观察时间段
Observed censuses (0.5 h)
访问次数/花数?小时 Visits/flowers?h
条蜂 Anthophora 蜜蜂 Honeybee 天蛾 Sphingid
红壤
Red soil
池塘边 Poolside 14 0.19 ± 0.02ab 0b 0.10 ± 0.03ab
路边 Roadside 16 0.16 ± 0.03ab 0.07 ± 0.02a 0c
苗圃角落 Yard’s corner 16 0.24 ± 0.03a 0.11 ± 0.02a 0.16 ± 0.04a
石灰岩土壤
Limestone soil
洞穴外 Near the cave 12 0.20 ± 0.04ab 0b 0.05 ± 0.03b
石缝处 Stony crevices 16 0.11 ± 0.03b 0b 0c
石山小径 Stony pathlet 16 0.17 ± 0.04ab 0b 0.12 ± 0.04ab
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