生物多样性 ›› 1997, Vol. 05 ›› Issue (4): 251-256.DOI: 10.17520/biods.1997043

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

短柄五加开花及传粉生物学研究*

王仲礼,刘林德,田国伟,申家恒   

  1. 1  (烟台师范学院生物系,  烟台 264025)
    2  (哈尔滨师范大学生物系,  哈尔滨 150080)
  • 收稿日期:1996-04-29 修回日期:1997-03-12 出版日期:1997-11-20 发布日期:1997-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 申家恒1

Flowering and pollination biology of Eleutherococcus brachypus

Wang Zhongli1), Liu Linde1), Tian Guowei2), Shen Jiaheng1)   

  1. 1)Biological Department of Yantai Normal College ,  Yantai  264025
    2)Biological Department of Harbin Normal University ,  Harbin  150080
  • Received:1996-04-29 Revised:1997-03-12 Online:1997-11-20 Published:1997-11-20
  • Contact: Shen Jiaheng1)

摘要:

本文对短柄五加(Eleutherococcus brachypus )的花期物候、开花式样、访花昆虫种类、访花行为及访花频率进行了观察,对花粉活力、柱头可授性、花粉胚珠比以及传粉效果和繁育系统做了检测。初步结果表明,短柄五加以根茎进行无性繁殖,1个居群为1个无性系。虽自交亲和,但昆虫的访花活动可显著提高座果率。昆虫传粉主要在无性系内异花间进行,属于广义的自花传粉。传粉者为多种不同的昆虫,包括马蜂和胡蜂在内的蜂类、蝇类和甲虫。其花期物候、花粉活力、柱头可授期和蜜汁分泌期等特征使其能够适应环境,从而获得较高的座果率。平均座果率为65%,饱满种子率为45.5%。自然条件下未发现实生苗,广义的自花传粉导致的种子质量低下可能是其原因,也是限制短柄五加分布范围的重要因素。

Abstract:

The authors not only observed flowering phenology, flowering pattern, species of visiting insects, visitation rate of pollinators and their foraging behavior, but also studied pollen viability, stigma receptivity, pollen-ovule ratio, effect of insect pollination and breeding system. The results indicated that Eleutherococcus brachypus was in the progress of vegetative propagation and a population was a clone. A given flower kept open for about two days, but successive bloom of the flowers in a population lengthened its florescence for about 20 days. The pollen-ovule ratio (P/O) was about 2500~3200. On the first day when Eleutherococcus brachypus was in bloom, the pollen grains shed. The viability of polen was over 90% and it lasted for over five days. The stigma has a receptivity of 10 days or so. Nectar secretion started on the first day and continued for about 10 days. Although it was physiologically self-compatible, pollinator visitation could highly enhance fruit set. The  invectors chiefly visited between 1200 and 1400 hours. Insects pollinated mainly among different flowers of the same clone, which, in a broad sense, belonged to self-pollination. Pollinators were diverse small insects such as smallbees, wasps, flies and beetles. Artificial pollination experiments showed that under  natural condition, the number of pollen on the stigma was inadequate. [WTBX]Eleutherococcus brachypus adapted to the habitat by such characteristics as its flowering season, high pollen viability, long time stigma receptivity and nectar secretion duration, thus its higher fruit set produced. The average fruit set ratio of Eleutherococcus brachypus  was 65% while plump seed ratio was 45.5%. No seedling was found in the field. It seems that the poor quality of seeds caused by inbreeding depression accounted for this. The poor quality of seeds also limited the distribution of  Eleutherococcus brachypus.