生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (7): 745-757.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017156

• • 上一篇    下一篇

中国被子植物濒危等级的评估

覃海宁1,*(), 赵莉娜1,2, 于胜祥1, 刘慧圆1,3, 刘博4, 夏念和5, 彭华6, 李振宇1, 张志翔7, 何兴金8, 尹林克9, 林余霖10, 刘全儒3, 侯元同11, 刘演12, 刘启新13, 曹伟14, 李建强15, 陈世龙16, 金效华1, 高天刚1, 陈文俐1, 马海英17, 耿玉英18, 金孝锋19, 常朝阳20, 蒋宏21, 蔡蕾22, 臧春鑫23, 武建勇24, 叶建飞2,25, 赖阳均26, 刘冰1, 林秦文25, 薛纳新1   

  1. 1 (中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学国家重点实验室, 北京 100093)
    2 (中国科学院大学生命科学学院, 北京 100049)
    3 (北京师范大学生命科学学院, 北京 100875)
    4 (中央民族大学生命科学学院, 北京 100081)
    5 (中国科学院华南植物园, 广州 510650)
    6 (中国科学院昆明植物研究所东亚植物多样性与生物地理学重点实验室, 昆明 650201)
    7 (北京林业大学自然保护区学院, 北京 100083)
    8 (四川大学生命科学学院, 成都 610064)
    9 (中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所, 乌鲁木齐 830011)
    10 (中国医学科学院北京协和医学院药用植物研究所, 北京 100193)
    11 (曲阜师范大学生命科学学院, 山东曲阜 273165)
    12 (广西壮族自治区中国科学院广西植物研究所, 广西桂林 541006)
    13 (江苏省中国科学院植物研究所, 南京 210014)
    14 (中国科学院沈阳应用生态研究所, 沈阳 110016)
    15 (中国科学院武汉植物园, 武汉 430074)
    16 (中国科学院西北高原生物研究所, 西宁 810008)
    17 (云南大学生命科学学院, 昆明 650091)
    18 (中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093)
    19 (杭州师范大学生命与环境科学学院, 杭州 310036)
    20 (西北农林科技大学生命科学学院, 陕西杨凌 712100)
    21 (云南省林业科学院, 昆明 650204)
    22 (环境保护部自然生态保护司, 北京 100035)
    23 (中国环境科学研究院, 北京 100012)
    24 (环境保护部南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042)
    25 (中国科学院植物研究所北京植物园, 北京 100093)
    26 (中国科学院南京地质古生物研究所, 南京 210008)
  • 收稿日期:2017-05-27 接受日期:2017-07-11 出版日期:2017-07-20 发布日期:2017-07-21
  • 通讯作者: 覃海宁
  • 基金资助:
    环境保护部生物多样性保护专项——中国高等植物红色名录和国家标本资源共享平台——植物子平台(2005DKA21401)

Evaluating the endangerment status of China’s angiosperms through the red list assessment

Haining Qin1,*(), Lina Zhao1,2, Shengxiang Yu1, Huiyuan Liu1,3, Bo Liu4, Nianhe Xia5, Hua Peng6, Zhenyu Li1, Zhixiang Zhang7, Xingjin He8, Linke Yin9, Yulin Lin10, Quanru Liu3, Yuantong Hou11, Yan Liu12, Qixin Liu13, Wei Cao14, Jianqiang Li15, Shilong Chen16, Xiaohua Jin1, Tiangang Gao1, Wenli Chen1, Haiying Ma17, Yuying Geng18, Xiaofeng Jin19, Chaoyang Chang20, Hong Jiang21, Lei Cai22, Chunxin Zang23, Jianyong Wu24, Jianfei Ye2,25, Yangjun Lai26, Bing Liu1, Qinwen Lin25, Naxin Xue1   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    2 College of Life Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    3 School of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875
    4 College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081
    5 South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650
    6 Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201
    7 School of Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
    8 College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064
    9 Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011
    10 Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medicinal Science & Peking Union Medicinal College, Beijing 100193;
    11 College of Life Sciences, Qufu Normal University, Qufu, Shandong 273165
    12 Guangxi Institute of Botany, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guilin, Guangxi 541006
    13 Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210014
    14 Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016
    15 Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074
    16 Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008
    17 School of Life Sciences, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091
    18 State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    19 College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036
    20 College of Life Sciences, Northwest Agriculture & Forestry University, Yangling, Shanxi 712100;
    21 Yunnan Academy of Forestry, Kunming 650204
    22 Ministry of Environment Protection of the People’s Republic of China, Beijing 100035;
    23 Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
    24 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing 210042
    25 Beijing Botanical Garden, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    26 Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008;
  • Received:2017-05-27 Accepted:2017-07-11 Online:2017-07-20 Published:2017-07-21
  • Contact: Qin Haining

摘要:

本文基于文献和标本信息收集以及专家提供的数据, 运用IUCN濒危物种红色名录方法首次对中国范围内所有已知被子植物进行灭绝风险评估。结果显示, 在评估的30,068种被子植物中, 灭绝等级(含灭绝、野外灭绝、地区灭绝)共计40种; 受威胁等级(极危、濒危、易危) 3,363种, 受威胁比例为11.18%。从空间分布看, 我国受威胁被子植物主要集中分布在西南地区以及台湾、海南等岛屿, 且主要分布在中低海拔地区。对受威胁物种的分析结果表明, 包括原生植被破坏在内的生境丧失及破碎化是我国被子植物濒危的首要因子, 涉及约84.1%的受威胁物种; 过度采挖和物种内在系统问题位列致危因子的第二、三位, 分别涉及38%和14%的物种。其他的致危因子包括外来入侵种在内的种间竞争、环境污染、自然灾害和全球气候变化等。一个物种的致危因子往往是多方面的。本次评估与2004年红色名录相比, 生境变化、实施保护措施及分类学新修订使一些物种的濒危等级发生了变化, 这也印证了红色名录是一个动态的系统, 需要根据最新信息进行更新, 以便为生物多样性保护提供实时准确的基础数据。

关键词: IUCN红色名录, 灭绝风险评估, 威胁因子, 被子植物, 保护

Abstract:

All known species of Angiosperms in China were evaluated according to the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1, Second edition and the Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National Levels, Version 4.0. Of the 30,068 species evaluated, 21 species were found Extinct (EX), 9 species were Extinct in the Wild (EW), 10 species were Regionally Extinct (RE), 518 species were Critically Endangered (CR), 1,152 species were Endangered (EN), 1,693 species were Vulnerable (VU), 2,538 species were Near Threatened (NT), 21,132 species were Least Concern (LC), and 2,995 species were Data Deficient (DD). The results show that 3,363 species, representing 11.2% of the evaluated species, were identified as threatened (CR, EN and VU). The main portion of threatened species occurs below 2,000 m elevation in southwestern and southern China. Habitat loss and degradation, over-collecting by humans, and intrinsic factors are the three leading threats to angiosperms in China. Comparisons of the status of taxa on this Red List to those evaluated by Wang & Xie (2004) show changes in the names and categories of some taxa due to land use pressures, the impact of conservation measures to improve the status of some species as well as new information, such as from taxonomic revisions. Therefore, there is a need for future data collection and reevaluation of the red list.

Key words: IUCN Red List, risk assessment of extinction, threats, angiosperms, conservation