生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (7): 745-757.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017156

• • 上一篇    下一篇

中国被子植物濒危等级的评估

覃海宁1, *(), 赵莉娜1, 2, 于胜祥1, 刘慧圆1, 3, 刘博4, 夏念和5, 彭华6, 李振宇1, 张志翔7, 何兴金8, 尹林克9, 林余霖10, 刘全儒3, 侯元同11, 刘演12, 刘启新13, 曹伟14, 李建强15, 陈世龙16, 金效华1, 高天刚1, 陈文俐1, 马海英17, 耿玉英18, 金孝锋19, 常朝阳20, 蒋宏21, 蔡蕾22, 臧春鑫23, 武建勇24, 叶建飞2, 25, 赖阳均26, 刘冰1, 林秦文25, 薛纳新1   

  1. 1 (中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学国家重点实验室, 北京 100093)
    2 (中国科学院大学生命科学学院, 北京 100049)
    3 (北京师范大学生命科学学院, 北京 100875)
    4 (中央民族大学生命科学学院, 北京 100081)
    5 (中国科学院华南植物园, 广州 510650)
    6 (中国科学院昆明植物研究所东亚植物多样性与生物地理学重点实验室, 昆明 650201)
    7 (北京林业大学自然保护区学院, 北京 100083)
    8 (四川大学生命科学学院, 成都 610064)
    9 (中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所, 乌鲁木齐 830011)
    10 (中国医学科学院北京协和医学院药用植物研究所, 北京 100193)
    11 (曲阜师范大学生命科学学院, 山东曲阜 273165)
    12 (广西壮族自治区中国科学院广西植物研究所, 广西桂林 541006)
    13 (江苏省中国科学院植物研究所, 南京 210014)
    14 (中国科学院沈阳应用生态研究所, 沈阳 110016)
    15 (中国科学院武汉植物园, 武汉 430074)
    16 (中国科学院西北高原生物研究所, 西宁 810008)
    17 (云南大学生命科学学院, 昆明 650091)
    18 (中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093)
    19 (杭州师范大学生命与环境科学学院, 杭州 310036)
    20 (西北农林科技大学生命科学学院, 陕西杨凌 712100)
    21 (云南省林业科学院, 昆明 650204)
    22 (环境保护部自然生态保护司, 北京 100035)
    23 (中国环境科学研究院, 北京 100012)
    24 (环境保护部南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042)
    25 (中国科学院植物研究所北京植物园, 北京 100093)
    26 (中国科学院南京地质古生物研究所, 南京 210008)
  • 收稿日期:2017-05-27 接受日期:2017-07-11 出版日期:2017-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 覃海宁 E-mail:hainingqin@ibcas.ac.cn
  • 基金项目:
    环境保护部生物多样性保护专项——中国高等植物红色名录和国家标本资源共享平台——植物子平台(2005DKA21401)

Evaluating the endangerment status of China’s angiosperms through the red list assessment

Haining Qin1, *(), Lina Zhao1, 2, Shengxiang Yu1, Huiyuan Liu1, 3, Bo Liu4, Nianhe Xia5, Hua Peng6, Zhenyu Li1, Zhixiang Zhang7, Xingjin He8, Linke Yin9, Yulin Lin10, Quanru Liu3, Yuantong Hou11, Yan Liu12, Qixin Liu13, Wei Cao14, Jianqiang Li15, Shilong Chen16, Xiaohua Jin1, Tiangang Gao1, Wenli Chen1, Haiying Ma17, Yuying Geng18, Xiaofeng Jin19, Chaoyang Chang20, Hong Jiang21, Lei Cai22, Chunxin Zang23, Jianyong Wu24, Jianfei Ye2, 25, Yangjun Lai26, Bing Liu1, Qinwen Lin25, Naxin Xue1   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    2 College of Life Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    3 School of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875
    4 College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081
    5 South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650
    6 Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201
    7 School of Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
    8 College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064
    9 Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011
    10 Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medicinal Science & Peking Union Medicinal College, Beijing 100193;
    11 College of Life Sciences, Qufu Normal University, Qufu, Shandong 273165
    12 Guangxi Institute of Botany, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guilin, Guangxi 541006
    13 Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210014
    14 Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016
    15 Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074
    16 Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008
    17 School of Life Sciences, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091
    18 State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    19 College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036
    20 College of Life Sciences, Northwest Agriculture & Forestry University, Yangling, Shanxi 712100;
    21 Yunnan Academy of Forestry, Kunming 650204
    22 Ministry of Environment Protection of the People’s Republic of China, Beijing 100035;
    23 Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
    24 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing 210042
    25 Beijing Botanical Garden, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    26 Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008;
  • Received:2017-05-27 Accepted:2017-07-11 Online:2017-07-20
  • Contact: Qin Haining E-mail:hainingqin@ibcas.ac.cn

本文基于文献和标本信息收集以及专家提供的数据, 运用IUCN濒危物种红色名录方法首次对中国范围内所有已知被子植物进行灭绝风险评估。结果显示, 在评估的30,068种被子植物中, 灭绝等级(含灭绝、野外灭绝、地区灭绝)共计40种; 受威胁等级(极危、濒危、易危) 3,363种, 受威胁比例为11.18%。从空间分布看, 我国受威胁被子植物主要集中分布在西南地区以及台湾、海南等岛屿, 且主要分布在中低海拔地区。对受威胁物种的分析结果表明, 包括原生植被破坏在内的生境丧失及破碎化是我国被子植物濒危的首要因子, 涉及约84.1%的受威胁物种; 过度采挖和物种内在系统问题位列致危因子的第二、三位, 分别涉及38%和14%的物种。其他的致危因子包括外来入侵种在内的种间竞争、环境污染、自然灾害和全球气候变化等。一个物种的致危因子往往是多方面的。本次评估与2004年红色名录相比, 生境变化、实施保护措施及分类学新修订使一些物种的濒危等级发生了变化, 这也印证了红色名录是一个动态的系统, 需要根据最新信息进行更新, 以便为生物多样性保护提供实时准确的基础数据。

关键词: IUCN红色名录, 灭绝风险评估, 威胁因子, 被子植物, 保护

All known species of Angiosperms in China were evaluated according to the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1, Second edition and the Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National Levels, Version 4.0. Of the 30,068 species evaluated, 21 species were found Extinct (EX), 9 species were Extinct in the Wild (EW), 10 species were Regionally Extinct (RE), 518 species were Critically Endangered (CR), 1,152 species were Endangered (EN), 1,693 species were Vulnerable (VU), 2,538 species were Near Threatened (NT), 21,132 species were Least Concern (LC), and 2,995 species were Data Deficient (DD). The results show that 3,363 species, representing 11.2% of the evaluated species, were identified as threatened (CR, EN and VU). The main portion of threatened species occurs below 2,000 m elevation in southwestern and southern China. Habitat loss and degradation, over-collecting by humans, and intrinsic factors are the three leading threats to angiosperms in China. Comparisons of the status of taxa on this Red List to those evaluated by Wang & Xie (2004) show changes in the names and categories of some taxa due to land use pressures, the impact of conservation measures to improve the status of some species as well as new information, such as from taxonomic revisions. Therefore, there is a need for future data collection and reevaluation of the red list.

Key words: IUCN Red List, risk assessment of extinction, threats, angiosperms, conservation

图1

区分“重点”与“非重点”物种流程图"

表1

中国被子植物红色名录各濒危等级的物种数及其占被子植物总种数的比例"

等级
Categories
物种数(%)
No. of species (%)
灭绝 Extinct (EX) 21(0.07)
野外灭绝 Extinct in wild (EW) 9(0.03)
地区灭绝 Regional Extinct (RE) 10(0.03)
极危等级 Critically Endangered (CR) 518(1.72)
濒危 Endangered (EN) 1,152(3.83)
易危 Vulnerable (VU) 1,693(5.63)
近危 Near Threatened (NT) 2,538(8.43)
无危 Least Concern (LC) 21,132(70.28)
数据缺乏 Data Deficient (DD) 2,995(9.96)
总计 Total 30,068(100)

表2

中国被子植物灭绝种(灭绝、野外灭绝、地区性灭绝)"

科名
Family
种名
Species
灭绝 EX (Extinct)
番荔枝科 Annonaceae 尖花藤 Friesodielsia hainanensis
菊科 Asteraceae 小叶橐吾 Ligularia parvifolia
秋海棠科 Begoniaceae 保亭秋海棠 Begonia sublongipes
桦木科 Betulaceae 盐桦 Betula halophila
白玉簪科 Corsiaceae 白玉簪 Corsiopsis chinensis
胡颓子科 Elaeagnaceae 柳州胡颓子 Elaeagnus liuzhouensis
杜鹃花科 Ericaceae 小溪洞杜鹃
Rhododendron xiaoxidongense
苦苣苔科 Gesneriaceae 圆果苣苔 Gyrogyne subaequifolia
唇形科 Lamiaceae 干生铃子香 Chelonopsis siccanea
唇形科 Lamiaceae 喜雨草 Ombrocharis dulcis
木通科 Lardizabalaceae 倒心叶野木瓜
Stauntonia obcordatilimba
樟科 Lauraceae 宁明琼楠 Beilschmiedia ningmingensis
樟科 Lauraceae 华蓥润楠 Machilus salicoides
百合科 Liliaceae 单花百合 Lilium stewartianum
兰科 Orchidaceae 单花美冠兰 Eulophia monantha
兰科 Orchidaceae 南川盆距兰
Gastrochilus nanchuanensis
兰科 Orchidaceae 明潭羊耳蒜 Liparis hensoaensis
兰科 Orchidaceae 峨眉带唇兰 Tainia emeiensis
无患子科 Sapindaceae 爪耳木 Lepisanthes unilocularis
玄参科 Scrophulariaceae 矮马先蒿 Pedicularis humilis
马鞭草科 Verbenaceae 小叶澜沧豆腐柴
Premna mekongensis var. meiophylla
野外灭绝 EW (Extinct in the Wild)
五加科 Araliaceae 三七 Panax notoginseng
杜鹃花科 Ericaceae 枯鲁杜鹃 Rhododendron adenosum
杜鹃花科 Ericaceae 乌来杜鹃 Rhododendron kanehirae
苦苣苔科 Gesneriaceae 焰苞唇柱苣苔 Chirita spadiciformis
水鳖科 Hydrocharitaceae 拟纤细茨藻 Najas pseudogracillima
百合科 Liliaceae 华南蜘蛛抱蛋
Aspidistra austrosinensis
睡菜科 Menyanthaceae 龙潭莕菜 Nymphoides lungtanensis
鼠李科 Rhamnaceae 鄂西鼠李 Rhamnus tzekweiensis
姜科 Zingiberaceae 细莪术 Curcuma exigua
地区灭绝 RE (Regionally Extinct)
凤仙花科 Balsaminaceae 水角 Hydrocera triflora
薯蓣科 Dioscoreaceae 吊罗薯蓣 Dioscorea poilanei
壳斗科 Fagaceae 闭壳柯 Lithocarpus cryptocarpus
小二仙草科 Haloragaceae 四蕊狐尾藻 Myriophyllum tetrandrum
水鳖科 Hydrocharitaceae 水菜花 Ottelia cordata
木兰科 Magnoliaceae 绒毛含笑 Michelia velutina
兰科 Orchidaceae 蒙自石豆兰 Bulbophyllum yunnanense
眼子菜科 Potamogetonaceae 高山眼子菜 Potamogeton alpinus
山榄科 Sapotaceae 云南藏榄 Diploknema yunnanensis
马鞭草科 Verbenaceae 塔序豆腐柴 Premna pyramidata

表3

被子植物中受威胁物种数最多的前15科(左列)和受威胁物种比例最高的前15科(右列)"


Family
种数
Species number
受威胁种数
No. of threatened species

Family
种数
Species number
受威胁种比例(%)
% of threatened species
兰科 Orchidaceae 1,502 653 木兰科 Magnoliaceae 113 67.3
杜鹃花科 Ericaceae 1,012 142 猕猴桃科 Actinidiaceae 76 63.2
豆科 Fabaceae 1,463 126 芍药科 Paeoniaceae 20 60
百合科 Liliaceae 760 103 薯蓣科 Dioscoreaceae 58 53.4
樟科 Lauraceae 465 99 金缕梅科 Hamamelidaceae 77 49.4
山茶科 Theaceae 346 91 马兜铃科 Aristolochiaceae 82 48.8
毛茛科 Ranunculaceae 1,081 87 兰科 Orchidaceae 1,502 43.5
木兰科 Magnoliaceae 113 76 黄杨科 Buxaceae 25 40
壳斗科 Fagaceae 305 75 梧桐科 Sterculiaceae 77 39
苦苣苔科 Gesneriaceae 496 73 槭树科 Aceraceae 130 36.2
蔷薇科 Rosaceae 1,206 62 棕榈科 Arecaceae 61 36.1
景天科 Crassulaceae 255 57 茶茱萸科 Icacinaceae 23 34.8
禾本科 Poaceae 1,881 53 安息香科 Styracaceae 65 33.8
小檗科 Berberidaceae 308 48 杜英科 Elaeocarpaceae 56 30.4
猕猴桃科 Actinidiaceae 76 48 胡桃科 Juglandaceae 24 29.2

图2

被子植物中受威胁物种比例最高的前15科及各个濒危等级。濒危等级的代号同表1。"

表4

各省区被子植物受威胁物种统计。濒危等级同表1。"

种数
Species
number
受威胁种数
No. of threatened
species
受威胁比例
% of threatened species
受威胁比例
% of threatened species
种数
Species
number
受威胁种数
No. of threatened
species
受威胁比例
% of threatened species
受威胁比例
% of threatened species
云南 Yunnan 15,915 1,710 10.7 50.8 重庆 Chongqing 1,062 73 6.9 2.2
四川 Sichuan 10,614 649 6.1 19.3 吉林 Jilin 1,975 63 3.2 1.9
广西 Guangxi 7,082 646 9.1 19.2 江苏 Jiangsu 1,651 58 3.5 1.7
西藏 Tibet 7,684 434 5.6 12.9 香港 Hong Kong 844 57 6.8 1.7
海南 Hainan 3,609 394 10.9 11.7 内蒙古
Inner Mongolia
2,208 57 2.6 1.7
贵州 Guizhou 5,828 381 6.5 11.3 河南 Henan 1,997 56 2.8 1.7
广东 Guangdong 5,157 340 6.6 10.1 河北 Hebei 1,997 49 2.5 1.5
台湾 Taiwan 4,529 302 6.7 9 辽宁 Liaoning 1,791 47 2.6 1.4
湖北 Hubei 3,784 197 5.2 5.9 黑龙江
Heilongjiang
1,872 47 2.5 1.4
湖南 Hunan 3,895 183 4.7 5.4 山西 Shanxi 1,696 45 2.7 1.3
浙江 Zhejiang 3,301 158 4.8 4.7 青海 Qinghai 2,190 45 2.1 1.3
福建 Fujian 3,477 157 4.5 4.7 山东 Shandong 1,232 23 1.9 0.7
陕西 Shaanxi 3,640 141 3.9 4.2 宁夏 Ningxia 879 17 1.9 0.5
江西 Jiangxi 3,194 129 4 3.8 北京 Beijing 218 5 2.3 0.1
甘肃 Gansu 3,795 119 3.1 3.5 上海 Shanghai 154 2 1.3 0.1
新疆 Xinjiang 3,325 116 3.5 3.4 澳门 Macao 92 0 0 0
安徽 Anhui 2,369 104 4.4 3.1 天津 Tianjin 46 0 0 0

表5

各省独有的狭域分布(1-3县)受威胁被子植物种数(前10省)"

种数 No. of species
云南 Yunnan 644
四川 Sichuan 180
广西 Guangxi 174
海南 Hainan 103
西藏 Tibet 103
新疆 Xinjiang 59
贵州 Guizhou 54
广东 Guangdong 48
重庆 Chongqing 31
浙江 Zhejiang 24

表6

被子植物受威胁种习性统计"

习性 Habit 物种数 No. of species
草本 Herb 一年生 Annual 57
两年生 Biennial 15
多年生 Perennial 1,460
其他 Others 102
小计 Subtotal 1,634
灌木 Shrub 竹子 Bamboo 34
其他 Others 735
小计 Subtotal 769
藤本 Vine 草质 Herb 99
木质 Woody 132
其他 Others 28
小计 Subtotal 259
木本 Tree 常绿 Evergreen 509
落叶 Deciduous 181
半落叶 Semi-deciduous 11
小计 Subtotal 701
总计 Total 3,363

表7

各植被类型受威胁被子植物的种数及其占3,363种受威胁种的百分比"

植被类型
Vegetation type
受威胁物种数
No. of threatened species
比例
%
森林 Forest 2,684 84.7
灌丛 Shrub 854 27
荒漠 Desert 52 1.6
草原、草甸等
Grassland & meadow
395 12.5
高山植被 Alpine vegetation 48 1.5
湿地(沼泽与水生植被)
Wetlands (bogs and aquatic)
42 1.3
人工植被 Artificial vegetation 422 13.3
其他生境类型 Other habitats 283 8.9

图3

被子植物受威胁种的海拔分布(部分种类跨几个海拔段分布)"

表8

中国被子植物的威胁因子"

威胁因子
Threats
影响物种数
Threatened
species number
比例
%
生境退化或丧失
Habitat degradation or loss
2,116 84.1
直接采挖或砍伐
Logging or harvesting
963 38.3
环境污染 Environmental pollution 17 0.7
自然灾害和气候变化
Natural disasters and climate change
39 1.6
物种内在因子 Internal factors 357 14.2
种间影响 Interspecific effects 33 1.3
1 Bilz M, Kell SP, Maxted N, Lansdown RV (2011) European Red List of Vascular Plants. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.
2 Bubb PJ, Butchart SHM, Collen B, Dublin H, Kapos V, Pollock C, Stuart SN, Vié JC (2009) IUCN Red List Index― Guidance for National and Regional Use. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
3 Convention on Biological Diversity (2012) Global Strategy for Plant Conservation: 2011-2020. Botanic Gardens Conservation International, Richmond, UK.
4 de Grammont PC, Cuarón AD (2006) An evaluation of threatened species categorization systems used on the American continent. Conservation Biology, 20, 14-27.
5 Fu LK, Jin JM (1991) The Red Data Book of China’s Plants, Vol. 1: Rare and Endangered Species (English Edition). Science Press, Beijing.
6 Fu ZJ (1998) The conservation and utilization of rare and endangered plants in Qinling range. Mountain Research, 16, 325-329. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[付志军 (1998) 秦岭珍稀濒危植物资源的利用价值与保护. 山地研究, 16, 325-329.]
7 Hilton-Taylor C (2000) The IUCN/SSC Red List Program: Toward the 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Species, 33, 21-29.
8 Hu QM, Xia NH, Wu DL (2003) Rare and Precious Plants of Hong Kong. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department, Hong Kong. (in Chinese)
[胡启明, 夏念和, 吴德邻 (2003) 香港稀有及珍贵植物. 香港渔农自然护理署.]
9 IUCN (2001) IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, Version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission, Gland, Switzerland.
10 IUCN (2012a) IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, Version 3.1. 2nd edn. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
11 IUCN (2012b) Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National Levels, Version 4.0. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK
12 IUCN (2012c) Rules of Procedure IUCN Red List Assessment Process 2013-2016. Version 2.0. Approved by the IUCN SSC Steering Committee in September 2012.
13 IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee (2011) Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Version 9.0. Prepared by IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee.
14 Miller RM, Rodríguez JP, Aniskowicz-Fowler T, Bambaradeniya C, Boles R, Eaton MA, Gärdenfors U, Keller V, Molur S, Walker S, Pollock C (2007) National threatened species listing based on IUCN criteria and regional guidelines: current status and future perspectives. Conservation Biology, 21, 684-696.
15 Mittermeier RA, Myers N, Thomsen JB, da Fonseca GAB, Olivieri S (1998) Biodiversity hotspots and major tropical wilderness areas: approaches to setting conservation priorities. Conservation Biology, 12, 516-520.
16 Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, da Fonseca GAB, Kent J (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature, 403, 853-858.
17 Novacek MJ, Cleland EE (2001) The current biodiversity extinction event: scenarios for mitigation and recovery. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 98, 5466-5470.
18 Qin WH, Jiang MK, Xu WG, He ZH (2012) Assessment of in situ conservation of 1,334 native orchids in China. Biodiversity Science, 20, 177-183. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[秦卫华, 蒋明康, 徐网谷, 贺昭和 (2012) 中国1,334种兰科植物就地保护状况评价. 生物多样性, 20, 177-183.]
19 Qiu YX, Fu CX (2001) Studies on the endangerment mechanism of and conservation strategies for Changium smyrnioides. Biodiversity Science, 9, 151-156. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[邱英雄, 傅承新 (2001) 明党参的濒危机制及其保护对策研究. 生物多样性, 9, 151-156.]
20 Raimondo D, von Staden L, Donaldson JS (2013) Lessons from the conservation assessment of the South African megaflora. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 99, 221-230.
21 Raimondo D, von Staden L, Foden W, Victor JE, Helme NA, Truner RC, Kamundi DA, Manyama PA (2009) Red List of South African Plants. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.
22 Rohan JCC, Stephen MD, Elisabeth S (2009) An approach for regional threat assessment under IUCN Red List criteria that is robust to uncertainty: The Fiordland bottlenose dolphins are critically endangered. Biological Conservation, 142, 1570-1579.
23 Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (2016) The State of the World’s Plants Report 2016. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
24 State Forestry Administration of The People's Republic of China, Ministry of Agriculture of The People's Republic of China (in Chinese) (1999) State’s Key Protected List of Wild Plants
[国家林业局和国家农业部 (1999) 国家重点保护野生植物名录(第一批), 1999年8月4日颁布, 1999年9月9日起施行.]
25 The Biodiversity Committee of Chinese Academy of Sciences(2016) Catalogue of Life China. Science Press, Beijing.
[中国科学院生物多样性委员会(编) (2016) 中国生物物种名录. 科学出版社, 北京.]
26 The Biodiversity Committee of Chinese Academy of Sciences (ed.) (2016) Catalogue of Life China 2017 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM. Science Press, Beijing.
[中国科学院生物多样性委员会(编) (2016) 中国生物物种名录2017版, CD-ROM. 科学出版社, 北京.]
27 [中华人民共和国濒危物种进出口管理办公室, 中华人民共和国濒危物种科学委员会 (2013) 濒危野生动植物国际贸易公约附录I、附录II和附录III.]
28 Wang JC, Chiou WL, Chang HM (eds) (2012) A Preliminary Red List of Taiwanese Vascular Plants. Endemic Species Research Institute & Taiwan Society of Plant Systematics. Nantou, Taiwan. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[王振哲, 邱文良, 张和明 (主编) (2012) 台湾维管植物红皮书初评名录. 特有生物研究保育中心及台湾植物分类学会, 南投, 台湾.]
29 Wang LS, Jia Y, Zhang XC, Qin HN (2015) Overview of higher plant diversity in China. Biodiversity Science, 23, 217-224. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[王利松, 贾渝, 张宪春, 覃海宁 (2015) 中国高等植物多样性. 生物多样性, 23, 217-224.]
30 Wang S, Xie Y (2004) China Species Red List, Vol. 1: Red List. Higher Education Press, Beijing. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[汪松, 解焱 (2004) 中国物种红色名录, 第1卷: 红色名录. 高等教育出版社, 北京.]
31 Wei FW, Nie YG, Miao HX, Lu H, Hu YB (2014) Advancements of the researches on biodiversity loss mechanisms (in Chinese). China Science Bulletin (Chinese Version), 59, 430-437. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[魏辅文, 聂永刚, 苗海霞, 路浩, 胡义波 (2014) 生物多样性丧失机制研究进展. 科学通报, 59, 430-437.]
32 Wu CY, Raven PH, Hong DY (eds.) (2013) Flora of China, Introduction, Vol.1. Sciences Press and Missouri Botanic Garden Press,, Beijing and St. Louis.
33 Wu P, Zhang KP (2008) Status of Cycas spp. plants in Yunnan and measures for their protection. Forest Inventory and Planning, 33(4), 116-119. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[吴萍, 张开平 (2008) 云南苏铁植物的现状及保护对策. 林业调查规划, 33(4), 116-119.]
34 Yan XF, Cao M (2008) The endangered causes and protective strategies for Shorea wantianshuea, a tropical rain forest tree species in Xishuangbanna. Journal of Fujian Forestry Science and Technology, 35, 187-191. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[闫兴富, 曹敏 (2008) 热带雨林濒危树种望天树的致危原因及保护策略. 福建林业科技, 35, 187-191.]
35 Zamin TJ, Baillie JEM, Miller RM, Rodríguez JP, Ardid ANA, Collen BEN (2010) National Red Listing beyond the 2010 target. Conservation Biology, 24, 1012-1020.
36 Zang CX, Cai L, Li JQ, Wu XP, Li XG, Li JS (2016) Preparation of the China Biodiversity Red List and its significance for biodiversity conservation within China. Biodiversity Science, 24, 610-614. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[臧春鑫, 蔡蕾, 李佳琦, 吴晓莆, 李晓光, 李俊生 (2016)《中国生物多样性红色名录》的制订及其对生物多样性保护的意义. 生物多样性, 24, 610-614.]
37 Zhang WH, Zu YG, Liu GB (2002) Population ecological characteristics and analysis on endangered cause of ten endangered plant species. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 22, 1512-1520. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[张文辉, 祖元刚, 刘国彬 (2002) 十种濒危植物的种群生态学特征及致危因素分析. 生态学报, 22, 1512-1520.]
38 Zhang YW, Yang HP, Chen B, Yang XM, Shen ZH (2009) Research progress of Orchidaceae in China. Guizhou Science, 27(4), 78-85. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[(张玉武, 杨红萍, 陈波, 杨晓梅, 沈峥华 (2009) 中国兰科植物研究进展概述. 贵州科学, 27(4), 78-85.]
39 Zhao LN, Li JY, Liu HY, Qin HN (2016) Distribution, congruence, and hotspots of higher plants in China. Scientific Reports, 6, 19080.
40 Zhou RC, Yu DM, Huang YQ, Yang RG (2002) Endangered mechanism and conservative strategies of Paeonia rockii. Territory & Natural Resources Study, 3, 74-75.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[周仁超, 于东明, 黄言强, 杨仍阁 (2002) 紫斑牡丹的濒危机制与保护对策. 国土与自然资源研究, 3, 74-75.]
41 Zhou SL, Ye WG (2002) The genetic diversity and conservation of Sinocalycanthus chinensis. Biodiversity Science, 10, 1-6. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[周世良, 叶文国 (2002) 夏腊梅的遗传多样性及其保护. 生物多样性, 10, 1-6.]
[1] 蒋志刚. 中国重点保护物种名录、标准与管理[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(6): 698-703.
[2] 穆君, 王娇娇, 张雷, 李云波, 李筑眉, 粟海军. 贵州习水国家级自然保护区红外相机鸟兽监测及活动节律分析[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(6): 683-688.
[3] 王渊, 李晟, 刘务林, 朱雪林, 李炳章. 西藏雅鲁藏布大峡谷国家级自然保护区金猫的色型类别与活动节律[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(6): 638-647.
[4] 张晓玲, 李亦超, 王芸芸, 蔡宏宇, 曾辉, 王志恒. 未来气候变化对不同国家茶适宜分布区的影响[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(6): 595-606.
[5] 莫张勤. 生态保护红线修复机制法治化: 定位、困境及其出路[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(3): 347-352.
[6] 唐康,杨若林. 大豆蛋白编码基因起源与进化[J]. 植物学报, 2019, 54(3): 316-327.
[7] 肖治术,陈立军,宋相金,束祖飞,肖荣高,黄小群. 基于红外相机技术对广东车八岭国家级自然保护区大中型兽类与雉类的编目清查与评估[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(3): 237-242.
[8] 陈立军,束祖飞,肖治术. 应用红外相机数据研究动物活动节律——以广东车八岭保护区鸡形目鸟类为例[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(3): 266-272.
[9] 赵阳,温源远. 《生物多样性公约》企业与生物多样性全球平台的发展情况及对中国的政策建议[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(3): 339-346.
[10] 陈强强, 李美玲, 王旭, FaisalMueenQamer, 王鹏, 杨建伟, 汪沐阳, 杨维康. 新疆塔什库尔干野生动物自然保护区马可波罗盘羊潜在生态廊道识别[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(2): 186-199.
[11] 吕忠梅. 以国家公园为主体的自然保护地体系立法思考[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(2): 128-136.
[12] 唐芳林, 闫颜, 刘文国. 我国国家公园体制建设进展[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(2): 123-127.
[13] 陶乃奇, 张斌, 刘信凯, 周和达, 钟乃盛, 严丹峰, 张敏, 高继银, 张文驹. 利用荧光标记SSR鉴别21个茶花新品种[J]. 植物学报, 2019, 54(1): 37-45.
[14] 王宇飞,苏红巧,赵鑫蕊,苏杨,罗敏. 基于保护地役权的自然保护地适应性管理方法探讨: 以钱江源国家公园体制试点区为例[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(1): 88-96.
[15] 邹东廷, 王庆刚, 罗奥, 王志恒. 中国蔷薇科植物多样性格局及其资源植物保护现状[J]. 植物生态学报, 2019, 43(1): 1-15.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed