生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (12): 1303-1312.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017140

• 研究报告: 植物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

内蒙古西部自然植被的物种多样性及其影响因素

杨崇曜1, 李恩贵1, 陈慧颖1, 张景慧2, 黄永梅1, *()   

  1. 1 .地表过程与资源生态国家重点实验室, 北京师范大学地理科学学部, 北京 100875
    2 .内蒙古大学生态与环境学院, 呼和浩特 010021
  • 收稿日期:2017-05-12 接受日期:2017-12-01 出版日期:2017-12-20
  • 通讯作者: 黄永梅 E-mail:ymhuang@bnu.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:
    科技基础性工作专项“华北地区自然植物群落资源综合考察” (2011FY110300)

Biodiversity of natural vegetation and influencing factors in western Inner Mongolia

Chongyao Yang1, Engui Li1, Huiying Chen1, Jinghui Zhang2, Yongmei Huang1, *()   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875
    2 School of Ecology and Environment, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021
  • Received:2017-05-12 Accepted:2017-12-01 Online:2017-12-20
  • Contact: Huang Yongmei E-mail:ymhuang@bnu.edu.cn

为深入认识干旱半干旱地区生物多样性的形成机制, 本文基于2012-2015年对内蒙古西部的温带草原、温带灌丛、草甸和荒漠4种植被型调查获取的74个样地数据, 对比了不同植被型的物种多样性差异, 分析了不同环境因子对内蒙古西部自然植被物种多样性的影响。结果表明: (1)综合Simpson指数、Patrick丰富度指数、Shannon-Wiener指数和Pielou均匀度指数分析, 内蒙古西部温带草原和草甸的物种多样性相近, 在4种植被型中最高, 荒漠的物种多样性最低。(2) Pearson相关分析结果表明, 气候因子中, 年均温、年降水量、潜在蒸散量和最冷月均温对群落物种多样性均具有显著影响, 其中Patrick丰富度指数、Shannon-Wiener指数、Simpson指数均与年均温、潜在蒸散量呈显著的负相关关系, 前两者还与年降水量呈显著的正相关关系, 各气候因子对Pielou均匀度指数的影响均不显著。(3)土壤化学性质中的土壤pH值、有机碳和全氮含量均对物种多样性有显著影响。(4)多元回归分析发现, 潜在蒸散量和土壤有机碳含量是影响Patrick丰富度指数和Shannon-Wiener指数的主导因子, 而Simpson指数的主导因子仅为土壤有机碳含量, Pielou均匀度指数的主导因子为土壤全氮含量。

关键词: 植被型, 物种多样性, 气候因子, 土壤化学性质, 内蒙古西部

To determine biodiversity, 74 plant community plots were surveyed in western Inner Mongolia between 2012 and 2014. These samples were divided into four vegetation types, including temperate steppe, temperate shrub, meadow, and desert. Four biodiversity indices (Patrick index, Simpson index, Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou index) were calculated to show biodiversity differences among the four vegetation types. Climate and soil data were also collected over the course of the survey. Pearson correlation analysis was conducted to reveal the relationship between biodiversity and environmental factors and stepwise regression analysis was used to determine dominant environmental factors. Results indicated that: (1) In western Inner Mongolia, biodiversity indices were different among the four vegetation types. Temperate steppe and meadow had similar values for biodiversity indices, and were also the highest amongst all vegetation types, while the lowest biodiversity was found in the desert. (2) Pearson correlation analysis showed that the Patrick index, Shannon-Wiener index, and Simpson index were all negatively and linearly correlated with mean annual temperature and potential evapotranspiration. (3) Among all chemical properties of the soil, pH, organic carbon and total nitrogen all influenced biodiversity indices. (4) Stepwise regression analysis showed that potential evapotranspiration and soil organic carbon were the most influential factors affecting the Patrick index and Shannon-Wiener index. The only dominant factor for the Simpson index was soil organic carbon while soil total nitrogen was most important factor for the Pielou index.

Key words: vegetation types, biodiversity, meteorological factors, soil chemical properties, western Inner Mongolia

图1

内蒙古西部研究区样地分布图"

表1

内蒙古西部植物群落类型"

植被型
Vegetation type
样地数
Plot number
群落名称
Community name
温带灌丛
Temperate shrub
27 柄扁桃灌丛, 蒙古扁桃灌丛, 山杏灌丛, 油蒿灌丛, 中间锦鸡儿灌丛, 柠条锦鸡儿灌丛, 小叶锦鸡儿灌丛, 藏锦鸡儿灌丛, 沙地柏灌丛, 西伯利亚白刺灌丛, 虎榛子灌丛, 单瓣黄刺玫灌丛, 蒙古绣线菊灌丛, 柽柳灌丛 Amygdalus pedunculata shrub, A. mongolica shrub, Armeniaca sibirica shrub, Artemisia ordosica shrub, Caragana davazamcii shrub, C. korshinskii shrub, C. microphylla shrub, C. tibetica shrub, Juniperus sabina shrub, Nitraria sibirica shrub, Ostryopsis davidiana shrub, Rosa xanthina var. normalis shrub, Spiraea mongolica shrub, Tamarix chinensis shrub
温带草原
Temperate steppe
25 冷蒿草原, 白莲蒿草原, 无芒隐子草草原, 羊茅草原, 羊草草原, 短花针茅草原, 沙生针茅草原, 戈壁针茅草原, 小针茅草原, 克氏针茅草原 Artemisia frigida steppe, A. sacrorum steppe, Cleistogenes songorica steppe, Festuca ovina steppe, Leymus chinensis steppe, Stipa breviflora steppe, S. glareosa steppe, S. gobica steppe, S. klemenzii steppe, S. krylovii steppe
荒漠
Desert
16 沙米+虫实+猪毛菜荒漠, 沙冬青荒漠, 籽蒿荒漠, 中亚紫菀木荒漠, 梭梭荒漠, 半日花荒漠, 盐爪爪荒漠, 驼绒藜荒漠, 红砂荒漠, 四合木荒漠, 霸王荒漠 Agriophyllum squarrosum + Corispermum sp.+ Salsola sp. desert, Ammopiptanthus mongolicus desert, Artemisia sphaerocephala desert, Asterothamnus centraliasiaticus desert, Haloxylon ammodendron desert, Helianthemum songaricum desert, Kalidium foliatum desert, Krascheninnikovia ceratoides desert, Reaumuria songarica desert, Tetraena mongolica desert, Zygophyllum xanthoxylon desert
草甸 Meadow 6 芨芨草草甸, 拂子茅草甸, 薹草-杂类草草甸 Achnatherum splendens meadow, Calamagrostis epigeios meadow, Carex spp. -forb meadow

图2

内蒙古西部不同群落类型多样性指数对比"

表2

内蒙古西部植物群落物种多样性指数与气候因子的Pearson相关性分析结果"

多样性指数
Diversity index
年均温 Mean annual temperature 年降水 Mean annual precipitation 最冷月均温 Mean temperature of the coldest month 潜在蒸散量 Potential evapotranspiration
Patrick丰富度指数 Patrick index -0.541** 0.367** -0.446** -0.568**
Simpson指数 Simpson index -0.294* 0.139 -0.212 -0.319**
Shannon-Wiener指数 Shannon-Wiener index -0.418** 0.253* -0.326** -0.444**
Pielou均匀度指数 Pielou index -0.067 -0.042 -0.003 -0.090

表3

内蒙古西部植物群落物种多样性指数与土壤化学性质的Pearson相关性分析结果"

多样性指数 Diversity index pH 有机碳 Total organic carbon 全氮 Total nitrogen 全磷 Total phosphorus
Patrick丰富度指数 Patrick index -0.511** 0.509** 0.307* 0.171
Simpson指数 Simpson index -0.286* 0.388** 0.226 0.096
Shannon-Wiener指数 Shannon-Wiener index -0.388** 0.462** 0.271* -0.151
Pielou均匀度指数 Pielou index -0.119 0.330** 0.326** 0.133

表4

多元逐步回归分析结果"

因变量
Dependent variable
引入变量
Variables entered
调整 R2
Adjusted R2
P
P value
Patrick丰富度指数
Patrick index
PET 0.358 0.000
TOC 0.415 0.010
Simpson指数 Simpson index TOC 0.122 0.003
Shannon-Wiener指数
Shannon-Wiener index
PET 0.196 0.008
TOC 0.259 0.015
Pielou均匀度指数 Pielou index TN 0.108 0.005
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