生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (7): 781-793.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017129

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野生牡丹的生存状况和保护

洪德元1, *(), 周世良1, 何兴金2, 袁军辉3, 张延龙4, 成仿云5, 曾秀丽6, 王雁7, 张秀新8   

  1. 1 (中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学国家重点实验室, 北京 100093)
    2 (四川大学生命科学学院, 成都 610064)
    3 (上海辰山植物园, 中国科学院上海辰山植物科学研究中心, 上海 201602)
    4 (西北农林科技大学风景园林艺术学院, 陕西杨凌 712100)
    5 (北京林业大学园林学院, 北京 100083)
    6 (西藏自治区农牧科学院蔬菜研究所, 拉萨 850030)
    7 (中国林业科学院林业研究所, 北京 100091)
    8 (中国农业科学院蔬菜花卉研究所, 北京 100081) ;
  • 出版日期:2017-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 洪德元 E-mail:hongdy@ibcas.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:具体评估过程包括信息汇总(各个渠道的标本信息、野外调查信息及文献资料)、逐条比对IUCN红色名录等级与标准、确定等级、填写评估说明。在具体评估过程中, 针对不同类群设计信息调查表, 通过电话和邮件向多位同行征询物种的居群信息。

Current status of wild tree peony species with special reference to conservation

De-Yuan Hong1, *(), Shiliang Zhou1, Xingjin He2, Junhui Yuan3, Yanlong Zhang4, Fangyun Cheng5, Xiuli Zeng6, Yan Wang7, Xiuxin Zhang8   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    2 College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064
    3 Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden, Shanghai Chenshan Plant Science Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201602
    4 College of Landscape Architecture and Arts, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100;
    5 Landscape Architecture School, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
    6 Institute of Vegetables of Tibet Academy, Agricultural and Animal Husbandry Sciences, Lhasa 850030
    7 Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091
    8 Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081;
  • Online:2017-07-20
  • Contact: Hong De-Yuan E-mail:hongdy@ibcas.ac.cn

芍药属(Paeonia L.)的木本植物属于牡丹组(Paeonia sect. Moutan DC.), 共有9个野生物种和1个包含上千品种的栽培种。所有野生牡丹都为中国特有, 是非同寻常的资源植物。1992年出版的《中国植物红皮书》收录了388个保护类群, 野生牡丹就占了4个。本文回顾了野生牡丹保护的历史、调查和研究的经过、研究结果以及存在的问题, 着重介绍了野生牡丹的生物学背景、分布和生境, 并就其濒危等级和保护措施提出了建议。根据我们的调查和零星的资料, 凤丹(P. ostii)和中原牡丹(P. cathayana)都只剩单株, 亟待挽救; 紫斑牡丹(P. rockii)、卵叶牡丹(P. qiui)、四川牡丹(P. decomposita)和圆裂牡丹(P. rotundiloba)处于濒危状态; 大花黄牡丹(P. ludlowii)和矮牡丹(P. jishanensis)应属于易危等级, 只有滇牡丹(P. delavayi)尚不在濒危之列。总结以往保护的进程, 我们强调, 如果没有科学的物种划分, 保护单元不明确, 生态和生物学信息不够充实, 就难以制定科学的保护策略和可行的保护措施。因此, 呼吁有关部门高度重视这一问题, 开展深入的野生牡丹现状的调查, 制定切实可行的保护策略, 并实行有力的保护措施。

关键词: 芍药属, 野生牡丹, 保护, 物种划分

The section Moutan DC. of Paeonia L. contains nine wild species of tree peonies and one cultivated species comprising hundreds of cultivars. All wild species are endemic to China, and are highly valuable resources. The China Plant Red Data Book published in 1992 includes 388 conservation units, of which four are tree peonies. The present article briefly reviews the history of field surveys, investigations, and conservation of wild tree peonies, as well as preliminary results, and finally proposes questions and suggestions for future work. The article focuses the biological background of wild tree peonies, their distribution and habitats, and proposes suggestions for endangered ranks and conservation strategies. Based on our survey and incomplete data, we consider that P. ostii and P. cathayana each has only one individual, and thus effective conservation measures should be taken for them immediately; P. rockii, P. qiui, P. decomposita and P. rotundiloba are endangered; P. ludlowii and P. jishanensis are vulnerable, and of the nine wild species of tree peonies, unfortunately, only P. delavayi is classified as a healthy species. We emphasize that if species delimitation is not rational, conservation units are not clearly defined, and ecological and biological information is inadequate, it will be impossible to work out a scientific conservation strategy and practical conservation measures. Lastly, the article appeals to relevant agencies to pay attention to conservation of wild tree peonies, to provide funds for conducting intensive surveys examining the present situation of wild tree peonies, and subsequently to formulate a rational strategy and feasible measures for conserving precious wild tree peonies.

Key words: Paeonia, wild tree peony species, conservation, species delimitation

图1

四川牡丹野生居群的分布"

图2

四川牡丹的生境及结实情况。a, b: 生境, 灌丛或疏林; c-e, 在开阔的灌丛或林缘中结实率较高。"

图3

滇牡丹生境(a-d)、地下部分形态(e, f)和实生苗(g)。a: 昆明呈贡, 高灌丛; b: 云南丽江云杉坪, 针叶林; c: 西藏林芝八一镇, 林缘开阔地; d: 云南香格里拉, 稀疏灌丛; e: 纺锤根和地下茎; f: 地下茎(四川雅江尼日乡); g: 实生苗。"

图4

矮牡丹野生居群的分布"

图5

矮牡丹的生境和萌生苗。a, b, c: 生境, 灌丛或稀疏的落叶阔叶林; d: 无性繁殖(萌生苗)。"

图6

大花黄牡丹。a, b: 乱采滥挖造成的惨象和适宜生境; c, d: 林缘的环境; e: 根象一般灌木, 无营养繁殖迹象; f: 下垂的蓇葖果挂满枝; g: 英国自然博物馆大门两侧的大花黄牡丹; h: 英国皇家邱植物园中繁殖的大花黄牡丹种子。"

图7

大花黄牡丹野生居群的分布"

图8

凤丹野生植株分布点"

图9

卵叶牡丹。a, b: 湖北保康后坪镇车丰坪居群; c, d: 陕西旬阳白柳镇居群; e, 湖北神农架山屯岩居群, 仅一个心皮发育。f: 陕西旬阳白柳镇居群, 示根出条。c, d, f由张延龙团队提供。"

图10

卵叶牡丹野生居群的分布"

图11

紫斑牡丹野生居群的分布。圆形代表紫斑牡丹原亚种, 三角形代表裂叶紫斑牡丹。"

图12

圆裂牡丹野生居群的分布"

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