生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (10): 1075-1084.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017125

• 研究报告: 植物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

海口马鞍岭火山口地区的维管植物多样性

袁浪兴, 史佑海, 成夏岚, 秦昊林, 王文龙, 赵坤坤, 祝志欣, 王华锋*()   

  1. 海南大学热带农林学院海南省热带生物资源可持续利用重点实验室, 海口 570228
  • 收稿日期:2017-04-21 接受日期:2017-07-01 出版日期:2017-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 王华锋 E-mail:wanghuafeng2012@foxmail.com
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31660055;31660074)和海南大学启动基金(kyqd1633)

Taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity of vascular plants in the Ma’anling volcanic area of Hainan, China

Langxing Yuan, Youhai Shi, Xialan Cheng, Haolin Qin, Wenlong Wang, Kunkun Zhao, Zhixin Zhu, Huafeng Wang*()   

  1. Hainan Key Laboratory for Sustainable Utilization of Tropical Bioresources, Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Forestry, Hainan University, Haikou, 570228
  • Received:2017-04-21 Accepted:2017-07-01 Online:2017-10-20
  • Contact: Wang Huafeng E-mail:wanghuafeng2012@foxmail.com

马鞍岭火山口地区位于海南省海口市西南部, 是我国唯一的热带城市海岛火山群, 具有热带及向南亚热带过渡生物群落的典型特征。我们通过实地调查分析了该地区维管植物的物种多样性、谱系多样性和植物区系, 并推测了其可能的起源与演化历史。结果显示: 海口马鞍岭火山口地区共有维管植物284种, 隶属88科241属, 其中本地种194个、外来入侵种23个、逸生种19个、归化种31个、栽培种40个。珍稀濒危植物4种, 包括被《IUCN红色名录(2013)》列为易危物种的土沉香(Aquilaria sinensis)和降香(Dalbergia odorifera), 被《国家重点保护植物名录》列为易危物种的海南龙血树(Dracaena cambodiana)和濒危物种荔枝(Litchi chinensis)。总体来说, 马鞍岭火山口地区植物种类丰富, 乔木在不同土地利用类型(人工林、次生林和撂荒地)中的物种多样性差异显著(P < 0.05), 而灌木和草本植物在不同土地利用类型中的物种多样性差异不显著。人工林与撂荒地间的谱系多样性差异显著(P < 0.05), 而次生林与这两者的差异都不显著。植物区系以热带成分为主, 其区系成分与广东植物区系联系最为密切, 而与越南及广西的植物区系的联系较远。本文结果为进一步深入研究该地区植物区系、植物的保护及利用提供了依据。

关键词: 马鞍岭火山, 维管植物, 植物区系地理, 物种多样性

The Ma’anling volcanic area in Hainan Province, located in the southwest portion of Haikou, is the only tropical island volcano group of China, and contains China’s typical tropical and subtropical biological communities. We carried out a field investigation of the vascular plants in the area. In this paper, we examined the origination and evolution of flora, listing all plants in the region and analyzing the taxonomy and phylogenetic diversity. Results showed that there were 284 species of vascular plants in the Ma’anling area of Haikou belonging to 88 families and 241 genera, which included 194 native species, 23 exotic invasive species, 31 naturalized species, 40 cultivars and 4 rare and endangered plant species. In general, plant species were abundant in the crater area of the saddle ridge and species diversity of the trees under different land use regimes (plantation, secondary forest, and wasteland) was significant, whereas species diversity of shrubs and grasses in different land types was not significant. There were significant diversity differences between the plantations and the wastelands, while the diversity differences between the secondary forests and the plantations were insignificant. In addition, flora was mainly composed of tropical taxa that are most closely related to the flora of Guangdong; likewise, the flora of Vietnam and Guangxi are also closely linked. This study provided a basis for further exploration of flora as well as plant protection and utilization in the area.

Key words: Ma’, anling volcanic area, vascular plants, floristic geography, species diversity

表1

马鞍岭火山口地区植物物种组成及生活型"

类群 Type 物种组成 Species composition 生活型组成 Life form composition
科 Family 属 Genus 种 Species 乔木 Tree (%) 灌木 Shrub (%) 草本 Herb (%) 藤本 Liana (%)
蕨类 Ferns 5 8 8 - - 7 (2.46) 1 (0.35)
被子植物 Angiosperm 83 233 276 - - - -
双子叶植物 Dicotyledon 70 203 243 71 (25.00) 73 (25.70) 65 (22.89) 34 (11.97)
单子叶植物 Monocotyledon 13 30 33 6 (2.11) 3 (1.06) 18 (6.34) 6 (2.11)
合计 Total 88 241 284 77 (27.11) 76 (26.76) 90 (31.69) 41 (14.44)

图1

海口马鞍岭火山口地区科属数排列前14位的植物科和属"

表2

马鞍岭火山口地区被子植物科属的分布区类型"

分布区类型 Areal-types 科数 No. of family (%) 属数 No. of genus (%)
2 泛热带分布 Pantropic 38 (45.78) 83 (35.62)
3 热带亚洲至热带美洲间断分布 Tropical Asia and Tropical America disjuncted 6 (7.23) 20 (8.58)
4 旧世界热带分布 Old World Tropics 5 (6.02) 38 (16.31)
5 热带亚洲至大洋洲分布 Tropical Asia to Tropical Australasia 2 (2.41) 27 (11.59)
6 热带亚洲至热带非洲分布 Tropical Asia to Tropical Africa 0 (0.00) 12 (5.15)
7 热带亚洲分布 Tropical Asia (Indo-Malesia) 0 (0.00) 25 (10.73)
热带成分合计 Subtotal tropical elements (2-7) 51 (61.44) 205 (87.98)
8 北温带分布 North Temperate 6 (7.23) 5 (2.15)
9 东亚和北美间断分布 East Asia and North America disjuncted 0 (0.00) 8 (3.43)
13 中亚分布 Center Asia 0 (0.00) 1 (0.43)
14 东亚分布 East Asia 0 (0.00) 2 (0.86)
温带成分合计 Subtotal temperate elements (8-14) 6 (7.23) 16 (6.87)
(17) 热带非洲-热带美洲间断分布 Tropical Afria & Tropical America disjuncted 2 (2.41) 2 (0.86)
总计 Total 83 (100) 233 (100)

表3

马鞍岭火山口地区不同土地利用类型间不同生活型的植物多样性指数"

生活型
Life forms
Berger-Parker 优势度指数
Berger-Parker index (d)
Shannon多样性指数
Shannon diversity index ( H')
Pielou均匀度指数
Pielou evenness index (J)
次生林 Secondary forest 乔木 Tree 2.27 ± 0.89ab 1.04 ± 0.48b 0.86 ± 0.17a
灌木 Shrub 2.39 ± 0.59a 0.80 ± 0.29a 1.00 ± 0.01a
草丛 Herb 1.67 ± 0.46a 0.66 ± 0.28a 0.82 ± 0.09a
撂荒地 Wasteland 乔木 Tree 1.69 ± 0.60b 0.67 ± 0.47c 0.88 ± 0.14a
灌木 Shrub 2.26 ± 0.79a 0.71 ± 0.38a 1.00 ± 0.00a
草丛 Herb 1.66 ± 0.19a 0.72 ± 0.12a 0.84 ± 0.07a
人工林 Plantation 乔木 Tree 2.56 ± 1.03a 1.35 ± 0.46a 0.87 ± 0.11a
灌木 Shrub 2.44 ± 0.73a 0.82 ± 0.31a 1.00 ± 0.02a
草丛 Herb 1.69 ± 0.35a 0.69 ± 0.24a 0.84 ± 0.07a

表4

马鞍岭火山口地区不同土地利用类型的植物谱系多样性指数"

谱系多样性
Phylogenetic diversity
物种数量
Number of taxa
种间平均进化距离
Mean phylogenetic distance
最近种间平均进化距离
Mean nearest phylogenetic taxon distance
次生林 Secondary forest 1,546.33 ± 179.65a 12.43 ± 1.55a 213.60 ± 44.11ab 190.84 ± 54.74a
撂荒地 Wasteland 1,304.87 ± 202.84b 10.07 ± 2.16b 189.16 ± 41.29b 167.83 ± 60.02a
人工林 Plantation 1,620.81 ± 260.43a 13.20 ± 2.35a 225.38 ± 64.07a 201.65 ± 69.63a
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