生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (2): 111-129.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017021

所属专题: 生物多样性与生态系统功能

• 保护论坛 • 上一篇    下一篇

青藏高原高寒草地生物多样性与生态系统功能的关系

张中华1, 6, 周华坤1, 2, *(), 赵新全1, 2, *(), 姚步青1, 马真1, 董全民3, 张振华1, 王文颖4, 杨元武5   

  1. 1 .中国科学院西北高原生物研究所青海省寒区恢复生态学重点实验室, 西宁 810008
    2 .青海大学省部共建三江源生态与高原农牧业国家重点实验室, 西宁 810016
    3. 青海省畜牧兽医科学院, 西宁 810016
    4 .青海师范大学生命与地理科学学院, 西宁 810008
    5 .青海大学农牧学院, 西宁 810016
    6 .中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2017-01-23 接受日期:2017-07-15 出版日期:2018-04-02
  • 通讯作者: 周华坤,赵新全 E-mail:hkzhou@nwipb.cas.cn;xqzhao@nwipb.cas.cn
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金项目:
    青海省自然科学基金(2016-ZJ-910)、青海省创新平台建设专项(2017-ZJ-Y20)、省部共建三江源生态和高原农牧业国家重点实验室开放研究项目(2017-KF-02)、国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0501901)、国家自然科学基金(31672475, 31472135)和青海省科技厅项目(2016-ZJ-Y01)

Relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in alpine meadows of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

Zhonghua Zhang1, 6, Huakun Zhou1, 2, *(), Xinquan Zhao1, 2, *(), Buqing Yao1, Zhen Ma1, Quanmin Dong3, Zhenhua Zhang1, Wenying Wang4, Yuanwu Yang5   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Cold Regions Restoration Ecology, Qinghai Province, Northwest Plateau Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008
    2 The Co-constructing State Key Laboratory of Three Rivers Sources Ecology and Plateau Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, Qinghai University, Xining 810016
    3 Qinghai Academy of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Xining 810016
    4 College of Life and Geography Science, Qinghai Normal University, Xining 810008
    5 College of Agricultural and Animal Husbandry, Qinghai University, Xining 810016
    6 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2017-01-23 Accepted:2017-07-15 Online:2018-04-02
  • Contact: Zhou Huakun,Zhao Xinquan E-mail:hkzhou@nwipb.cas.cn;xqzhao@nwipb.cas.cn
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

生物多样性和生态系统功能(BEF)之间的关系是目前陆地生态系统生态学研究的热点, 对于生态系统的高效利用与管理意义重大, 而且对于退化生态系统功能的恢复及生物多样性的保护有重要的指导作用。高寒草地是青藏高原生态系统的主体, 近年来, 在气候变化与人为干扰等因素的驱动下, 高寒草地生态系统功能严重衰退。为此, 本文在综述物种多样性和生态系统功能及其相互关系研究进展的基础上, 首先从地下生态学过程研究、全球变化对生态系统多功能性的影响等方面解析了目前关于草地生物多样性和生态系统功能研究中存在的问题。继而, 从不同草地类型、草地退化程度、放牧、模拟气候变化、刈割、施肥、封育和补播等干扰利用方式对高寒草地物种多样性与生态系统功能的影响进行了全面的评述。并指出了高寒草地BEF研究中存在的不足, 今后应基于物种功能多样性开展高寒草地BEF研究, 全面且综合地考虑非生物因子(养分资源、外界干扰、环境波动等)对生物多样性与生态系统功能之间关系的影响, 关注尺度效应和要素耦合在全球气候变化对高寒草地BEF研究中的作用。最后, 以高寒草地BEF研究进展和结论为支撑依据, 综合提出了高寒草地资源利用和生物多样性保护的措施与建议: 加强放牧管理, 保护生物多样性; 治理退化草地, 维持生物多样性功能; 加强创新保护理念, 增强生态系统功能。

关键词: 高寒草地, 生物多样性, 生态系统功能, 生产力, 气候变暖, 放牧, 土地利用, 保护策略

The study of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) is a hot topic in the field of terrestrial ecosystem ecology, and is of great significance for the efficient use and management of ecosystems. Furthermore, it plays an important role in the restoration of degraded ecosystems and biodiversity conservation. Alpine grassland is the main ecosystem type found in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. In recent years, progress has been made on species diversity and ecosystem functioning and their mutual relationship in alpine grasslands. This paper analyzes existing problems in the research of grassland biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in terms of the study of underlying ecological processes and the impacts on ecosystem multi-functionality under global change. The effects of different grassland types, grassland degradation, grazing disturbance, simulated climate change, mowing, fertilization, enclosure, and replanting on the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in alpine grasslands are also thoroughly reviewed in this paper. Moreover, deficiencies and future research directions of alpine grassland BEF are identified: carrying on the BEF research of alpine grasslands based on the functional diversity of species, comprehensively considering the effects of abiotic factors such as resource supply levels, disturbance intensity and scale, and environmental fluctuation on the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem function, and paying attention to the effect of scale and element coupling on BEF research of alpine grasslands under global climate change. Finally, based on research progress and conclusions of BEF in alpine grasslands, we put forward suggestions to improve the utilization rate of alpine grassland resources and biodiversity conservation, including strengthening grazing management, protecting biodiversity, improving governance of degraded grasslands, maintaining biodiversity function, strengthening innovation and protection concepts and enhancing ecosystem functioning that has been seriously weakened by climate change and human disturbance.

Key words: alpine meadow, biodiversity, ecosystem function, productivity, climate warming, grazing, land use, protection strategy

图1

物种多样性与干扰水平的关系。I: 低干扰水平下, 物种多样性由于竞争排斥作用处于较低水平; II: 中等干扰水平下, 由于演替阶段早期和晚期的物种可以共存, 所以物种多样性最大; III: 在高水平的扰动下, 物种丰富度由于扰动的增加而减少。"

表1

放牧处理对高寒草地生物多样性和生态系统功能关系的影响"

实验期限
Experimental period (year)
高度
Height
盖度
Coverage
生物多样性
Biodiversity
地下生物量
Underground biomass
地上生物量
Above ground
biomass
总生物量
Total
biomass
参考文献
Reference
高寒草原
Alpine grassland
3 - 驼峰曲线 Hump - Chen et al, 2015
高寒草甸
Alpine meadow
6 * - * Zhao et al, 2009
小嵩草草甸
Kobresia pygmae meadow
2 * * 驼峰曲线 Hump - - Dong et al, 2012
金露梅灌丛
Potentilla fruticosa shrubs
18 - - 驼峰曲线 Hump * Zhou et al, 2004
高寒草甸
Alpine meadow
自然放牧
Natural grazing
驼峰曲线 Hump Jiang et al, 2003
金露梅灌丛
Potentilla fruticosa shrubs
1 正相关 Positive - Liu et al, 1999
高寒草甸
Alpine meadow
自然放牧
Natural grazing
- - 驼峰曲线 Hump - Ren et al, 2009

表2

高寒草地生物量和群落生产力对气候变暖的响应"

草地类型 Grassland types 生物量和群落生产力 Biomass and community productivity 文献 References
川西北亚高山草地
Subalpine grassland in
Northwest Sichuan Province
糙野青茅、牛尾草、发草生物量增加
The biomass of Deyeuxia scabrescens, Festuca elatior and Deschampsia caespitosa increase
Shi et al, 2008;
Xu et al, 2009
高寒草甸 Alpine meadow 禾本科牧草生物量下降 Biomass of gramineous forage decreased Li et al, 2011
青藏铁路沿线高寒草甸
Alpine meadow along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway
增温使生物量更多分配到地上部分, 而冻土融化致使深层土壤水分对生物量产生影响。根系生物量略有增加, 但在生长季不同月份其增加的程度不同, 致使年际间的增幅出现差异。
Warming makes more biomass allocation to aboveground parts, and the melting of frozen soil leads to the effect of soil moisture on biomass. The root biomass increased slightly, but the degree of increase was different in different months of growing season, resulting in a difference in interannual growth.
Xu et al, 2016a
青海海北矮嵩草草甸
Kobresia humilis meadow in Haibei, Qinghai
禾草生物量增加, 杂草生物量下降; 提高地上生产力40%以上。
Grasses biomass increased, weeds biomass decreased, and aboveground productivity increased by over 40%.
Zhou et al, 2000;
Li et al, 2004;
Wang et al, 2012
新疆天山高寒草原
Alpine grassland in Tianshan Mountain, Xinjiang Province
生物量先增加后减少 Biomass increased first and then decreased Li et al, 2007b

图2

增温前后生物多样性和生态系统功能关系曲线的变化。为方便理解, 假设生物多样性和生态系统功能关系曲线是对数曲线(部分实验可以支持此曲线模型)。箭头大小表示可能性大小。"

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