生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (3): 255-264.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016274

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玉龙雪山寒温性云冷杉林动态监测样地的物种组成及群落结构

黄华1, 陈智发1, 刘德团1, 和国星2, 和荣华2, 李德铢1, *(), 许琨1, *()   

  1. 1 .中国科学院昆明植物研究所丽江森林生态系统定位研究站, 昆明 650201
    2 .玉龙雪山省级自然保护区管护局, 云南丽江 674100
  • 收稿日期:2016-09-22 接受日期:2017-01-23 出版日期:2017-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 李德铢,许琨 E-mail:dzl@mail.kib.ac.cn;xukun@mail.kib.ac.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家重大科学研究计划(2014CB954100)和云南省应用基础研究基金(2014GA003)

Species composition and community structure of the Yulongxueshan (Jade Dragon Snow Mountains) forest dynamics plot in the cold tem- perate spruce-fir forest, Southwest China

Hua Huang1, Zhifa Chen1, Detuan Liu1, Guoxing He2, Ronghua He2, Dezhu Li1, *(), Kun Xu1, *()   

  1. 1 Lijiang Forest Ecosystem Research Station, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201
    2 Administration Bureau of Yulongxueshan Provincial Nature Reserve, Lijiang, Yunnan 674100
  • Received:2016-09-22 Accepted:2017-01-23 Online:2017-03-20
  • Contact: Li Dezhu,Xu Kun E-mail:dzl@mail.kib.ac.cn;xukun@mail.kib.ac.cn

云冷杉林是玉龙雪山东坡保存最完整的森林植被, 为了更好地了解其物种组成和群落结构等基本特征, 中国科学院昆明植物研究所联合玉龙雪山省级自然保护区管护局, 按照CTFS (Center for Tropical Forest Science)的样地建设标准, 于2012-2014年在玉龙雪山省级自然保护区内建立了25 ha (500 m × 500 m)的长期监测样地。本研究以样地内所有胸径(DBH) ≥ 1 cm的木本植物(不含竹子)为研究对象, 分析了该样地的区系成分、群落组成、垂直结构及径级结构。结果表明: 样地内DBH ≥ 1 cm的木本植物(不含竹子)独立个体数为47,751, 分属26科41属62种, 以温带分布尤其是北温带成分为主要区系特征。重要值 ≥ 1的物种有18个, 贡献了90.24%的重要值。群落垂直结构可分为4层, 川滇冷杉(Abies forrestii)、丽江云杉(Picea likiangensis)和帽斗栎(Quercus guajavifolia)为主林层优势种和建群种, 径级分布为峰型或近倒“J”型, 持续更新能力较好; 吴茱萸五加(Gamblea ciliata var. evodiifolia)、篦齿槭(Acer pectinatum)和短梗稠李(Padus brachypoda)是主亚林层的优势种, 在某些片段可形成落叶阔叶林的优势群落, 径级分布出现明显断层, 未来将出现衰退。西康花楸(Sorbus prattii)、桦叶荚蒾(Viburnum betulifolium)和云南杜鹃(Rhododendron yunnanense)是次林层的优势种; 灌木层假小檗(Berberis fallax)是样地内个体数最多的物种, 占总个体数的59.51%, 其重要值最高, 占总数的22.75%, 径级分布呈“L”型。

关键词: 生物多样性, 径级结构, 区系, 分布格局

Spruce-fir forests are one of the best protected areas of forest vegetation occurring on the eastern slope of the Yulongxueshan (Jade Dragon Snow Mountains). To further understand the spruce-fir species composition and community structure, a 25 ha (500 m × 500 m) forest dynamics plot was established in the Yulongxueshan Provincial Nature Reserve by the Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Administration Bureau of Yulongxueshan Provincial Nature Reserve from 2012 to 2014, according to the standards from the Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS). In this study, we analyzed the flora, community composition, structure, DBH size-classes and spatial distribution based data collected from all woody (excluding bamboo) plants with DBH ≥ 1 cm. Our results demonstrated that a total of 47,751 free-standing individuals with DBH ≥ 1 cm were recorded, belonging to 62 species, 41 genera and 26 families. The north temperate distribution plant contributed to the most significant floristic characteristics. In the plot, the 18 species with importance value (IV) ≥ 1 contributed 90.24% to the IV of the community. Based on the vertical structure of plant heights, the community was divided into four layers. The dominant species in the canopy layer were Abies forrestii, Picea likiangensis and Quercus guajavifolia, which exhibited a pattern of ridge type and a reverse-J shape in DBH size-classes structure and strong regenerating capacity. Gamblea ciliata var. evodiifolia, Acer pectinatum and Padus brachypoda occupied the sub-canopy layer, and could be the constructive community species in some fragmented habitats. These species were lacking small DBH trees, so their populations are predicted to decline in the future. Sorbus prattii, Viburnum betulifolium and Rhododendron yunnanense dominated the sub-tree layer. In the shrub layer, Berberis fallax consisted of the largest number of individuals and accounting for 59.51% of the total number of individuals; together with the highest importance value, accounting for 22.75% of the total IV, and DBH size-class distribution in a “L” shape.

Key words: biodiversity, DBH size-classes structure, flora, spatial pattern

图1

玉龙雪山云冷杉林25 ha样地的位置示意图(左)和等高线图(右)"

表1

玉龙雪山云冷杉林25 ha样地的物种组成"

科 Family 属数 No. of genus 种数 No. of species 多度 Abundance 胸高断面积 Basal area (m2) 重要值 Importance values
小檗科 Berberidaceae 1 3 28,697 5.05 23.34
松科 Pinaceae 4 4 5,837 612.32 26.02
忍冬科 Caprifoliaceae 3 7 2,888 7.46 8.21
蔷薇科 Rosaceae 7 12 2,014 47.57 7.67
壳斗科 Fagaceae 1 1 1,324 323.03 12.04
槭树科 Aceraceae 1 4 1,315 67.32 5.68
杜鹃花科 Ericaceae 1 5 1,265 17.33 2.83
五加科 Araliaceae 2 2 1,243 67.50 4.93
冬青科 Aquifoliaceae 1 1 656 0.32 1.40
清风藤科 Sabiaceae 2 2 605 0.77 1.48
绣球花科 Hydrangeaceae 1 1 528 2.51 1.70
樟科 Lauraceae 1 2 402 3.39 1.40
卫矛科 Celastraceae 1 2 374 1.20 1.31
茶藨子科 Grossulariaceae 1 2 277 0.16 0.84
唇形科 Labiatae 1 1 130 0.02 0.35
木樨科 Oleaceae 2 2 53 0.49 0.23
五味子科 Schisandraceae 1 1 52 0.03 0.14
红豆杉科 Taxaceae 1 1 40 0.72 0.19
毛茛科 Ranunculaceae 1 1 21 0.00 0.11
山茱萸科 Cornaceae 2 2 8 0.11 0.04
杨柳科 Salicaceae 1 1 5 0.03 0.02
柏科 Cupressaceae 1 1 4 0.01 0.02
芍药科 Paeoniaceae 1 1 4 0.00 0.02
菊科 Compositae 1 1 4 0.00 0.01
旌节花科 Stachyuraceae 1 1 4 0.04 0.01
椴树科 Tiliaceae 1 1 1 0.12 0.01
总计 Total 41 62 47,751 1,157.47 100

表2

玉龙雪山云冷杉林25 ha样地乔木种子植物的分布区类型"

分布区类型 Areal types 科数 No. of family 属数 No. of genera
1 世界广布 Cosmopolitan 6 -
2 泛热带 Pantropic 3 1
3 东亚(热带、亚热带)及热带南美间断 Tropical & Subtropical East Asia & (South) Tropical America disjuncted 2 2
4 旧世界热带 Old World Tropics - 1
5 热带亚洲至热带大洋洲 Tropical Asia to Tropical Australasia Oceania - -
6 热带亚洲至热带非洲 Tropical Asia to Tropical Africa 1 -
7 热带东南亚至印度-马来, 太平洋诸岛(热带亚洲) Tropical Southeast Asia + Indo-Malaya + Tropical South & Southwest Pacific Island (Tropical Asia) 1 1
8 北温带 North Temperate 11 22
9 东亚及北美间断 East Asia & North America disjuncted 1 3
10 旧世界温带 Old World Temperate - 3
11 温带亚洲 Temperate Asia - -
12 地中海、西亚至中亚 Mediterranean, West to Central Asia - -
13 中亚 Central Asia - -
14 东亚 East Asia 1 4
15 中国特有 Endemic to China - 1
16 南半球热带以外间断或星散分布 Extratropical South Hemisphere disjuncted or dispersed - -
17 热带非洲-热带美洲间断 Tropical Africa & Tropical America disjuncted - -
18 泛南极 Holantarctic - -
合计 Total 26 41

图2

玉龙雪山云冷杉林25 ha样地的物种多度累积分布图"

表3

玉龙雪山云冷杉林25 ha样地重要值 ≥ 1的物种"

物种
Species
多度
Abundance
相对频度
Relative frequency
胸高断面积
Basal area (m2)
胸径
DBH (mean ± SE) (cm)
重要值
Importance values
假小檗 Berberis fallax 28,416 8.31 4.98 1.44 ± 0.00 22.75
川滇冷杉 Abies forrestii 5,207 7.78 379.53 19.63 ± 0.32 17.16
帽斗栎 Quercus guajavifolia 1,324 5.45 323.03 45.09 ± 0.90 12.04
丽江云杉 Picea likiangensis 596 4.78 225.75 50.84 ± 1.94 8.51
吴茱萸五加 Gamblea ciliata var. evodiifolia 1,065 5.84 66.66 25.74 ± 0.36 4.61
篦齿槭 Acer pectinatum 958 5.32 50.16 23.30 ± 0.36 3.89
西康花楸 Sorbus prattii 915 5.80 12.36 11.78 ± 0.19 2.93
桦叶荚蒾 Viburnum betulifolium 1,114 5.91 1.53 3.78 ± 0.05 2.79
云南杜鹃 Rhododendron yunnanense 1,162 3.47 16.73 10.95 ± 0.23 2.45
短梗稠李 Padus brachypoda 328 2.74 25.92 28.46 ± 0.77 1.89
唐古特忍冬 Lonicera tangutica 671 4.02 0.54 2.78 ± 0.06 1.82
丽江山梅花 Philadelphus calvescens 528 3.77 2.51 7.08 ± 0.14 1.70
陷脉冬青 Ilex delavayi 656 2.79 0.32 2.20 ± 0.05 1.40
阔叶清风藤 Sabia yunnanensis subsp. latifolia 581 2.82 0.39 2.63 ± 0.05 1.36
高山木姜子 Litsea chunii 372 2.89 2.85 8.56 ± 0.26 1.30
湖北花楸 Sorbus hupehensis 309 2.67 6.43 14.65 ± 0.40 1.29
紫花卫矛 Euonymus porphyreus 366 2.95 0.91 5.05 ± 0.13 1.27
华西忍冬 Lonicera webbiana 265 2.59 1.38 6.94 ± 0.26 1.09
云南双盾木 Dipelta yunnanensis 385 1.88 3.19 9.64 ± 0.18 0.99
其他 Others 2,533 18.20 32.31 - 8.77
总计 Total 47,751 100 1,157.47 - 100

表4

玉龙雪山云冷杉林25 ha样地物种数排名前7位的树种"

物种 Species 占总个体数的比例 Accounts for the proportion of the total number of individuals (%)
假小檗 Berberis fallax 59.51
川滇冷杉 Abies forrestii 10.90
帽斗栎 Quercus guajavifolia 2.77
云南杜鹃 Rhododendron yunnanense 2.43
桦叶荚蒾 Viburnum betulifolium 2.33
吴茱萸五加 Gamblea ciliata var. evodiifolia 2.23
篦齿槭 Acer pectinatum 2.01
其他 Others 17.81

图3

玉龙雪山云冷杉林25 ha样地所有树种的径级分布图(A)和径级累计分布图(B)"

图4

玉龙雪山云冷杉林25 ha样地群落垂直分层的径级结构"

图5

9个优势物种的径级结构图。A, 川滇冷杉; B, 帽斗栎; C, 丽江云杉; D, 吴茱萸五加; E, 篦齿槭; F, 西康花楸; G, 桦叶荚蒾; H, 云南杜鹃; I, 假小檗。"

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