生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (1): 3-10.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016220

• • 上一篇    下一篇

秦岭西部森林群落相似性递减格局及其影响因素

赵鸣飞1, 2, 王国义1, 2, 邢开雄3, 王宇航1, 2, 薛峰1, 2, 康慕谊1, 2, *(), 罗开4   

  1. 1 北京师范大学资源学院, 北京 100875
    2 北京师范大学地表过程与资源生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100875
    3 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101
    4 宝鸡市马头滩林业局, 陕西宝鸡 721006);
  • 收稿日期:2016-08-11 接受日期:2016-10-19 出版日期:2017-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 康慕谊 E-mail:kangmy@bnu.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(41271059)和科技部科技基础性工作专项(2011FY110300)

Patterns and determinants of species similarity decay of forest communities in the western Qinling Mountains

Mingfei Zhao1, 2, Guoyi Wang1, 2, Kaixiong Xing3, Yuhang Wang1, 2, Feng Xue1, 2, Muyi Kang1, 2, *(), Kai Luo4   

  1. 1 College of Resources Science & Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875
    2 State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875
    3 Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    4 Baoji Matoutan Forestry Bureau, Baoji, Shaanxi 721006
  • Received:2016-08-11 Accepted:2016-10-19 Online:2017-01-20
  • Contact: Kang Muyi E-mail:kangmy@bnu.edu.cn

群落间物种组成的相似性递减格局与生境过滤、空间过程密切相关, 探索其成因涉及到群落构建机制等生态学核心问题。本研究以秦岭西部森林群落为研究对象, 运用Mantel检验和基于距离矩阵的多元回归方法, 探究了不同生态因子对群落相似性变异的贡献, 并通过置换检验比较不同生活型之间相似性的空间递减率差异。结果显示: (1) 3种生活型物种组成相似性与地理距离、海拔距离、局地生境异质性差异均呈显著递减趋势; (2)地理距离与生境差异作为主导因子, 分别共同解释乔木、灌木和草本群落相似性变异的41.1%、59.0%和47.4%, 且地理距离的单独解释率均大于生境过滤的单独解释率; (3)不同生活型相似性在空间上的递减率大小关系为: 乔木 > 灌木 > 草本, 表明物种因扩散能力的不同而对空间阻隔效应的响应存在差异。本研究初步确定扩散限制与生境过滤共同主导了秦岭西部森林群落的构建过程, 且扩散限制所起作用更为显著。

关键词: 扩散限制, 生境过滤, 生境异质性, 海拔梯度, 群落构建, 物种周转率

Although much research has focused on biodiversity in mountain regions, elevational patterns of community similarity (i.e. species turnover) and the underlying processes are still rarely discussed. In this study, based on field investigations of 28 forest communities in the western Qinling Mountains, we evaluated the combined effects of habitat divergence and geographical distance on patterns of similarity in species composition using Mantel tests and multiple regressions on distance matrices (MRM). We also compared the rates of similarity decay of different life forms with geographical distance using permutation tests. Results indicated that, for all three life forms, community similarity decreased significantly with elevational, geographical, and habitat distances. Geographical distance and habitat heterogeneity together explained 41.1%, 59.0% and 47.4% of variance in species composition of trees, shrubs and herbs, respectively, with geographical distance uniformly explaining more variance than habitat heterogeneity. Woody plants showed a faster decay in similarity with geographical distance than herbaceous species. These results suggest that, at the scale of our study, dispersal limitations and habitat filtering influence species composition together, and highlighted that dispersal limitation may play a more important role in structuring the forest communities of the western Qinling Mountains.

Key words: dispersal limitation, habitat filtering, habitat heterogeneity, elevational gradient, community assembly, species turnover

表1

基于Mantel检验的群落物种相似性与地理距离、海拔距离、生境差异之间的相关关系"

解释变量
Explanatory variable
乔木
Tree
灌木
Shrub
草本
Herb
地理距离 Geographic distance 0.640*** 0.787*** 0.656***
海拔距离 Elevational distance 0.674*** 0.647*** 0.586***
坡向 Aspect 0.067 0.057 0.216***
坡度 Slope 0.035 0.071 0.151*
冠层厚度 Canopy thickness 0.060 -0.026 0.090
总胸高断面积 Total basal area 0.184** 0.122 0.226**
乔木密度 Tree density -0.101 -0.197 -0.028
土壤深度 Soil depth 0.003 -0.080 0.024
凋落层厚度 Litter thickness 0.319*** 0.107 0.295***
土壤有机碳 Soil organic C 0.355*** 0.300*** 0.440***
土壤全氮 Soil total N 0.395*** 0.306*** 0.441***
土壤全磷 Soil total P 0.214** 0.210*** 0.265***

图1

群落物种相似性指数与地理距离(a, b, c)、海拔距离(d, e, f)、生境差异(g, h, i)之间的关系。图中直线为线性回归拟合线。"

图2

偏MRM (距离矩阵多元回归)模型中地理距离、生境差异对乔木、灌木、草本3种生活型物种相似性的解释率"

表2

不同生活型物种相似性沿空间距离递减率差异比较"

空间变量
Spatial variables
生活型
Life form
灌木
Shrubs
草本
Herbs
海拔距离
Elevational distance
乔木 Tree P < 0.001 P < 0.001
灌木 Shrub - P = 0.006
地理距离
Geographical distance
乔木 Tree P = 0.182 P < 0.001
灌木 Shrub - P < 0.001
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