生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (7): 765-773.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016204

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中国石松类和蕨类植物的红色名录评估

董仕勇1, *(), 左政裕1, 2, 严岳鸿3, 向建英4   

  1. 1 (中国科学院华南植物园植物资源保护与可持续利用重点实验室, 广州 510650)
    2 (中国科学院大学, 北京 100049)
    3 (上海辰山植物园, 中国科学院上海辰山植物科学研究中心, 上海 201602)
    4 (西南林业大学云南生物多样性研究院, 昆明 650224) ;
  • 收稿日期:2016-07-24 接受日期:2016-10-27 出版日期:2017-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 董仕勇 E-mail:dongshiyong@scib.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:具体评估过程包括信息汇总(各个渠道的标本信息、野外调查信息及文献资料)、逐条比对IUCN红色名录等级与标准、确定等级、填写评估说明。在具体评估过程中, 针对不同类群设计信息调查表, 通过电话和邮件向多位同行征询物种的居群信息。
  • 基金项目:
    环境保护部“生物多样性保护专项”—中国高等植物红色名录;国家标本资源共享平台—植物子平台(2005DKA21401)

Red list assessment of lycophytes and ferns in China

Shiyong Dong1, *(), Zhengyu Zuo1, 2, Yuehong Yan3, Jianying Xiang4   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Conservation and Sustainable Utilization, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    3 Shanghai Chenshan Plant Science Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden, Shanghai 201602
    4 Yunnan Academy of Biodiversity, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224;
  • Received:2016-07-24 Accepted:2016-10-27 Online:2017-07-20
  • Contact: Dong Shiyong E-mail:dongshiyong@scib.ac.cn

为了解中国现存石松类和蕨类植物的灭绝风险, 我们按照IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (Version 3.1)首次开展了国家水平上的红色名录评估。三人评估小组通过查阅文献、标本以及向其他30位中国蕨类同行征询物种信息等途径, 历经16个月的时间完成了此次评估。经统计, 中国目前所知的石松类和蕨类植物共计2,244种(包括亚种和变种, 但不包括变型和杂交种)。评估结果为: 极危(CR) 43种(其中6种可能已经灭绝)、濒危(EN) 68种、易危(VU) 71种、近危(NT) 66种、无危(LC) 1,124种、数据缺乏(DD) 872种。受威胁种类(包括VU、EN、CR)共计182种, 其中79种为中国特有或准特有种。特有而又极度濒危的植物有24种, 分别是梅山铁线蕨(Adiantum meishanianum)、荷叶铁线蕨(A. nelumboides)、秦氏莲座蕨(Angiopteris chingii)、壮乡铁角蕨(Asplenium cornutissimum)、海南实蕨(Bolbitis hainanensis)、直叶金发石杉(Huperzia quasipolytrichoides var. rectifolia)、东方水韭(Isoëtes orientalis)、台湾水韭(I. taiwanensis)、云贵水韭(I. yunguiensis)、台湾曲轴蕨(Paesia taiwanensis)、海南金星蕨(Parathelypteris subimmersa)、基羽鞭叶耳蕨(Polystichum basipinnatum)、洞生耳蕨(P. cavernicola)、微小耳蕨(P. minutissimum)、倒披针耳蕨(P. oblanceolatum)、岩穴耳蕨(P. speluncicola)、长柄新月蕨(Pronephrium longipetiolatum)、尾羽假毛蕨(Pseudocyclosorus caudipinnus)、罗浮牙蕨(Pteridrys lofouensis)、细叶凤尾蕨(Pteris angustipinna)、十字假瘤蕨(Selliguea cruciformis)、黑柄叉蕨(Tectaria ebenina)、河口叉蕨(T. hekouensis)和冈本氏岩蕨(Woodsia okamotoi), 它们应予以最优先保护。目前的红色名录只是一个初步评估结果, 若要得到一份更完整更准确的红色名录, 我们还需要做进一步的信息收集和评估工作, 特别要加强中国石松类和蕨类植物的分类学研究。今后评估工作中应重点关注的类群主要有莲座蕨属(Angiopteris)、铁角蕨属(Asplenium)、蹄盖蕨属(Athyrium)、对囊蕨属(Deparia)、鳞毛蕨属(Dryopteris)、石杉属(Huperzia)、耳蕨属(Polystichum)、凤尾蕨属(Pteris)、卷柏属(Selaginella)、水龙骨科(Polypodiaceae)和金星蕨科(Thelypteridaceae), 这些类群的物种分布与生存信息目前最为缺乏。

关键词: 生物多样性, 保护, 石松类, 蕨类植物, IUCN红色名录等级, IUCN红色名录标准, 受威胁种

To understand the extinction risk of lycophytes and ferns in China, we conducted an evaluation of the two groups according to IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (version 3.1) at the national level. During a period of 16 months, a group of three researchers evaluated each taxon by means of reading literature, checking herbarium specimens, and consulting colleagues working on lycophytes and ferns in China. A total of 30 colleagues share their knowledge, mainly regarding living status and distribution, on Chinese lycophytes and ferns. Here we present a preliminary red list of Chinese lycophytes and ferns which includes 2,244 taxa of the following categories: 43 Critically Endangered (CR, among which six have probably been already extinct) , 68 Endangered (EN), 71 Vulnerable (VU), 66 Near Threatened (NT), 1,124 Least Concern (LC), and 872 Data Deficient (DD). The taxa which have been taken into account include species, subspecies, and varieties only, with forms and hybrids excluded. Of the 182 threatened species (VU, EN, and CR), 79 are endemic (or nearly) to China. Conservation priorities are suggested for the 79 threatened and endemic species, especially the 24 critically endangered species which include Adiantum meishanianum, A. nelumboides, Angiopteris chingii, Asplenium cornutissimum, Bolbitis hainanensis, Huperzia quasipolytrichoides var. rectifolia, Isoëtes orientalis, I. taiwanensis, I. yunguiensis, Paesia taiwanensis, Parathelypteris subimmersa, Polystichum basipinnatum, P. cavernicola, P. minutissimum, P. oblanceolatum, P. speluncicola, Pronephrium longipetiolatum, Pseudocyclosorus caudipinnus, Pteridrys lofouensis, Pteris angustipinna, Selliguea cruciformis, Tectaria ebenina, T. hekouensis, and Woodsia okamotoi. This red list is of a preliminary nature as a rather high proportion of taxa belong to DD (up to 872, ca. 39 % of total taxa in China). To gain a complete and precise red list, further evaluation work, especially taxonomic revisions based on field observations, is needed for the lycophytes and ferns in China. These include Angiopteris, Asplenium, Athyrium, Deparia, Dryopteris, Huperzia, Polystichum, Pteris, Selaginella, Polypodiaceae, and Thelypteridaceae which are still relatively poorly understood in terms of taxonomy and conservation.

Key words: biodiversity, conservation, lycophytes, ferns, IUCN Red List categories, IUCN Red List criteria, threatened species

图1

中国石松类和蕨类植物红色名录等级及各等级所占的比例"

表1

6种在中国可能已经灭绝的蕨类植物"

种 Species 分布和采集信息 Distribution and collection information
海南实蕨
Bolbitis hainanensis
中国特产(海南和云南), 海南仅有1份1933年的凭证标本, 具体采集地不详; 云南仅有1956年采自思茅的3号标本, 之后再未见有采集记录。Endemic to China (in Hainan and Yunnan). There is only one collection from Hainan in 1933 and three collections from Yunnan in 1956. It has not been collected since 1956.
针叶蕨
Monogramma trichoidea
分布于中国(海南和台湾)及亚洲热带地区, 附生于热带雨林林下石上。台湾只有1923年的采集凭证; 海南仅有1935年的1份采集记录, 最近数十年来, 海南热带低地森林开发严重, 估计该种在海南已经消失。Distributed in Hainan and Taiwan of China and other tropical regions of Asia, lithophytic in rain forest. There is only one voucher from Taiwan in 1923 and one from Hainan in 1935, respectively. It is likely extinct in Hainan due to the heavy deforestation in past several decades.
尾羽假毛蕨
Pseudocyclosorus caudipinnus
海南特有, 但迄今只有1份1878年的模式标本。Endemic to Hainan. It is represented only by its type specimen collected in 1878.
罗浮牙蕨
Pteridrys lofouensis
中国特产(贵州和云南), 至今只有3份凭证标本, 其中1份为模式标本, 1910年以前采自贵州罗甸; 另2份标本分别于1954年采自云南屏边和1985年采自云南西畴。我们推测该种已经绝灭, 但没有针对该种开展过详细的调查, 尚不十分肯定。Endemic to China (in Guizhou and Yunnan), only three collections, with one (the type) from Luodian, Guizhou collected before 1910 and two from Yunnan (Pingbian in 1954 and Xichou in 1985). This species is likely extinct and we are not sure because of no special data available.
十字假瘤蕨
Selliguea cruciformis
分布于中国(广东)、越南北部和泰国北部。中国范围内, 历史上仅有1份1924年的模式标本, 采自广东北部龙头山, 此后再没有该种在中国的记录。Distributed in China (in Guangdong), northern Vietnam and northern Thailand. There is only one record from China, i.e., the type specimen from Longtoushan, northern Guangdong in 1924. Since then there is no any records of this species in China.
多变叉蕨
Tectaria variabilis
分布于中国(海南)和越南。中国的采集记录只有1935年的1份凭证标本, 此后再没有该种的采集记录。Distributed in China (in Hainan) and Vietnam. There is only one collection known in China which was gathered in 1935.

表2

中国特有或准特有且受威胁的石松类和蕨类植物。CR: 极度濒危; EN: 濒危; VU: 易危。*指示也分布到越南北部。"

分类群 Taxon 等级
Category
分类群 Taxon 等级
Category
石松类 Lycophytes
皱边石杉 Huperzia crispata VU 独山双盖蕨 Diplazium dushanense VU
直叶金发石杉 Huperzia quasipolytrichoides var. rectifolia CR 马鞍山双盖蕨 Diplazium maonense VU
东方水韭 Isoëtes orientalis CR 深裂双盖蕨 Diplazium metcalfii VU
中华水韭 Isoëtes sinensis EN 四棱双盖蕨 Diplazium quadrangulatum VU
台湾水韭 Isoëtes taiwanensis CR 网脉双盖蕨 Diplazium stenochlamys* VU
云贵水韭 Isoëtes yunguiensis CR 大平鳞毛蕨 Dryopteris bodinieri* EN
棣氏卷柏 Selaginella devolii EN 两广鳞毛蕨 Dryopteris liangkwangensis* EN
琉球卷柏 Selaginella lutchuensis EN 黄山鳞毛蕨 Dryopteris whangshangensis EN
蕨类 ferns 琼崖舌蕨 Elaphoglossum luzonicum var. mcclurei VU
台湾铁线蕨 Adiantum formosanum VU 心叶薄唇蕨 Leptochilus cantoniensis* VU
仙霞铁线蕨 Adiantum juxtapositum VU 碎叶鳞始蕨 Lindsaea chingii* EN
梅山铁线蕨 Adiantum meishanianum CR 中华藤蕨 Lomariopsis chinensis VU
荷叶铁线蕨 Adiantum nelumboides CR 台湾曲轴蕨 Paesia taiwanensis CR
台湾高山铁线蕨 Adiantum roborowskii var. taiwanianum VU 海南金星蕨 Parathelypteris subimmersa CR
黑柄粉背蕨 Aleuritopteris ebenipes VU 广东马尾杉 Phlegmariurus guangdongensis VU
中国蕨 Aleuritopteris grevilleoides VU 台湾马尾杉 Phlegmariurus taiwanensis VU
毛叶粉背蕨 Aleuritopteris squamosa EN 节毛耳蕨 Polystichum articulatipilosum EN
滇南桫椤 Alsophila austroyunnanensis VU 基羽鞭叶耳蕨 Polystichum basipinnatum CR
二回莲座蕨 Angiopteris bipinnata EN 洞生耳蕨 Polystichum cavernicola CR
秦氏莲座蕨 Angiopteris chingii CR 卵状边叶耳蕨 Polystichum conjunctum VU
相马氏莲座蕨 Angiopteris somae EN 广东耳蕨 Polystichum kwangtungense VU
四回毛枝蕨 Arachniodes sinomiqueliana EN 微小耳蕨 Polystichum minutissimum CR
壮乡铁角蕨 Asplenium cornutissimum CR 倒披针耳蕨 Polystichum oblanceolatum CR
黑边铁角蕨 Asplenium speluncae EN 岩穴耳蕨 Polystichum speluncicola CR
长叶蹄盖蕨 Athyrium elongatum VU 天坑耳蕨 Polystichum tiankengicola EN
海南蹄盖蕨 Athyrium hainanense EN 长柄新月蕨 Pronephrium longipetiolatum CR
小蹄盖蕨 Athyrium minimum EN 尾羽假毛蕨 Pseudocyclosorus caudipinnus CR
启无蹄盖蕨 Athyrium wangii VU 罗浮牙蕨 Pteridrys lofouensis CR
海南实蕨 Bolbitis hainanensis CR 细叶凤尾蕨 Pteris angustipinna CR
高平蕨 Caobangia squamata* VU 十字假瘤蕨 Selliguea cruciformis* CR
边果蕨 Craspedosorus sinensis EN 大围山假瘤蕨 Selliguea daweishanensis VU
滇桂肋毛蕨 Ctenitis dianguiensis EN 圆顶假瘤蕨 Selliguea obtusa VU
焕镛钩毛蕨 Cyclogramma chunii EN 屏边溪边蕨 Stegnogramma dictyoclinoides* EN
秦氏贯众 Cyrtomium chingianum EN 天长罗曼蕨 Struthiopteris eburnea var. obtusa VU
惠水贯众 Cyrtomium grossum EN 黑柄叉蕨 Tectaria ebenina* CR
邢氏贯众 Cyrtomium shingianum EN 粗齿叉蕨 Tectaria grossedentata EN
新宁贯众 Cyrtomium sinningense EN 河口叉蕨 Tectaria hekouensis CR
台湾贯众 Cyrtomium taiwanianum EN 五裂叶叉蕨 Tectaria quinquefida* EN
光叶蕨 Cystopteris chinensis EN 海南符藤蕨 Teratophyllum hainanense* EN
海南对囊蕨 Deparia hainanensis EN 冈本氏岩蕨 Woodsia okamotoi CR
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