生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (1): 23-33.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016199

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云南哀牢山常绿阔叶林的空间分异及其影响因素

徐远杰1, 林敦梅2, 石明3, 谢妍洁3, 王逸之1, 管振华1,*(), 向建英1   

  1. 1 西南林业大学云南生物多样性研究院, 昆明 650224
    2 重庆大学三峡库区生态环境教育部重点实验室, 重庆 400044
    3西南林业大学林学院, 昆明 650224
  • 收稿日期:2016-07-20 接受日期:2017-01-05 出版日期:2017-01-20 发布日期:2017-02-08
  • 通讯作者: 管振华
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31300454)

Spatial heterogeneity and its causes in evergreen broad-leaved forests in the Ailao Mountains, Yunnan Province

Yuanjie Xu1, Dunmei Lin2, Ming Shi3, Yanjie Xie3, Yizhi Wang1, Zhenhua Guan1,*(), Jianying Xiang1   

  1. 1 Yunnan Academy of Biodiversity, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224
    2 Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region’s Eco-Environment, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044
    3 The Faculty of Forestry, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224
  • Received:2016-07-20 Accepted:2017-01-05 Online:2017-01-20 Published:2017-02-08
  • Contact: Guan Zhenhua

摘要:

理解物种丰富度在空间上的变化, 阐明植物群落组成对生境异质性的响应是群落生态学研究的核心议题之一。与生境异质性有关的生态位分化对植物群落的多样性格局和物种分布具有重要影响。本文以分布在云南哀牢山的4种常绿阔叶林为研究对象, 通过对42个森林样地的调查取样, 探讨了常绿阔叶林的群落分布和树种丰富度在地形和土壤环境梯度上的变异。结果表明: 4种常绿阔叶林的树种组成有显著的差异。季风常绿阔叶林的树种丰富度极显著地高于其他3种类型; 中山湿性常绿阔叶林极显著地高于半湿润常绿阔叶林; 其他类型之间的差异不显著。非度量多维尺度分析显示, 海拔、坡度、土壤含水率及有机质等9个环境梯度是控制森林群落结构和树种分布的主要因素。土壤有效硼、海拔、全钾和凹凸度为树种丰富度的最佳预测变量, 累积解释了树种丰富度63.2%的变异。地形和土壤因子一起能够解释哀牢山常绿阔叶林的群落组成和树种丰富度的大部分变异。

关键词: 生境异质性, 群落组成, 树种丰富度, 常绿阔叶林, 哀牢山

Abstract:

Understanding the variation of species richness over spatial scales, and elucidating the response of plant community composition to habitat heterogeneity has been one of the major topics in the study of community ecology. Niche differentiation related to habitat heterogeneity plays an important role in shaping diversity levels and species distribution patterns of plant communities. Based on a survey of 42 plots of four types of evergreen broad-leaved forests in the Ailao Mountains of Yunnan Province, this paper explored how community distribution and tree species richness of such forests changed along topographic and edaphic gradients. We found significant differences in community composition among the four types of evergreen broad-leaved forests. Tree species richness of monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forests was significantly higher than that of the other forest types. Tree species richness of mid-montane moist evergreen broad-leaved forests was significantly higher than that of semi-humid evergreen broad-leaved forests, whereas no significant difference was observed among the other forest types. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) revealed that nine environmental gradients, including elevation, slope, soil water content, soil organic matter, were the determinants of forest community composition and tree distribution patterns. As the best predictors of tree species richness, soil available boron, elevation, soil total potassium and convexity together explained 63.2% of the variance of tree species richness. The combination of topographic and edaphic factors explained most of the variance of community composition and tree species richness of the evergreen broad leaved forests in the Ailao Mountains.

Key words: habitat heterogeneity, community composition, tree species richness, evergreen broad-leaved forests, the Ailao Mountains