生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (3): 275-284.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016180

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湖北七姊妹山亚热带常绿落叶阔叶混交林的 物种组成和群落结构

姚良锦1, 姚兰2, 易咏梅2, 艾训儒2, 冯广3, 刘峻城2, 林勇2, 黄伟2, 丁易1, 4, *(), 臧润国1, 4   

  1. 1.中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所, 国家林业局森林生态环境重点实验室, 北京 100091
    2 .湖北民族学院林学园艺学院, 湖北恩施 445000
    3 .北京林业大学林学院, 北京 100083
    4 .南京林业大学南方现代林业协同创新中心, 南京 210037
  • 收稿日期:2016-07-04 接受日期:2016-11-04 出版日期:2017-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 丁易 E-mail:ydingcaf@163.com
  • 基金项目:
    湖北民族学院博士基金(201707)和国家自然科学基金(41671047)

Species composition and community structure of a 6-ha subtropical evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest dynamics plot in the Qizimei Mountains, Hubei Province

Liangjin Yao1, Lan Yao2, Yongmei Yi2, Xunru Ai2, Guang Feng3, Juncheng Liu2, Yong Lin2, Wei Huang2, Yi Ding1, 4, *(), Runguo Zang1, 4   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment of State Forestry Administration, Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091
    2 School of Forestry and Horticulture, Hubei University for Nationalities, Enshi, Hubei 445000
    3 College of Forestry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
    4 Co-Innovation Center for Sustainable Forestry in Sounthern China, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037
  • Received:2016-07-04 Accepted:2016-11-04 Online:2017-03-20
  • Contact: Ding Yi E-mail:ydingcaf@163.com

亚热带常绿落叶阔叶混交林是亚热带山地中重要的森林植被类型之一, 是维持区域生态安全和保护生物多样性的重要屏障。为深入研究亚热带常绿落叶阔叶混交林中的生物多样性维持机理和动态过程, 我们在湖北恩施七姊妹山国家级自然保护区6 ha亚热带常绿落叶阔叶混交林动态监测样地调查了所有胸径(DBH) ≥ 1 cm的木本植物, 分析了其群落组成、径级结构和优势种的空间结构特征。共记录到木本植物50,316株, 其中独立个体有36,596株(去除分枝和萌生), 隶属于57科124属245种, 包括7种国家级保护植物和76种稀有种(每公顷个体数不超过1株)。样地内落叶物种分别占总物种数的61.2% (150种)和总个体数的52.6% (26,503株)。整个样地内植物个体胸径呈明显的倒“J”型分布, 平均胸径为4.38 cm。样地小径级木本植物较多, 胸径 ≥ 30 cm的木本植物仅175株。样地中重要值排名前4位的物种分别是川陕鹅耳枥(Carpinus fargesiana)、多脉青冈(Cyclobalanopsis multinervis)、交让木(Daphniphyllum macropodum)和缺萼枫香(Liquidambar acalycina)。这些优势种虽然在整个样地均有分布, 但大径级个体(DBH ≥ 10 cm)的空间分布差异较为明显。依据群落组成和径级结构特征, 湖北七姊妹山森林动态样地属于人为干扰后处于自然恢复中期的森林群落。针对该样地开展长期的森林动态监测, 将有助于深入了解亚热带常绿落叶阔叶混交林恢复过程中的群落构建规律和物种多样性维持机制。

关键词: 森林, 物种多样性, 径级结构, 空间分布, 优势种

The subtropical evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest (SEDBMF) is one of the most important forest vegetation types in subtropical mountainous regions. It can provide an important foundation to maintain regional ecological security and conserve biodiversity. To further explore maintenance mechanisms of species diversity in SEDBMF, a 6-ha forest dynamics plot was established in Hubei Qizimei Mountains National Nature Reserve, western Hubei Province in 2015. All living woody stems with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 1 cm were tagged, identified, measured, and mapped according to the methods of CTFS (Center for Tropical Forest Science). Community composition, diameter class structure, and characteristics of the spatial structure of dominant species were analyzed. Results showed that there were in total 50,316 stems and 36,596 independent individuals, belonging to 245 species 124 genera 57 families. Seven species that are national protected plants and 76 rare species (density ≤ 1 stem/ha) occurred in this plot. Among those stems, 61.2% of total species and 52.6% of the total stems were deciduous tree species. The structure of DBH size-classes of all stems showed a reverse “J” shape. The average stem DBH was 4.38 cm and there were only 175 stems with DBH ≥ 30 cm in this plot. The top four dominant species in the plot were Carpinus fargesiana, Cyclobalanopsis multinervis, Daphniphyllum macropodum, and Liquidambar acalycina. They nearly distributed all around the plot but large size trees (DBH ≥ 10 cm) showed relatively different spatial distributions. Based on community composition and stem size structure, the Qizimei Mountains forest dynamics plot belongs to the middle stage of secondary forests after anthropogenic disturbance. Consequently, monitoring long-term forest dynamics in this plot will promote a deeper understanding of community assemblage rules and maintenance mechanisms of species diversity during the natural recovery process in SEDBMF.

Key words: forest, species diversity, structure of stem size class, spatial distribution, dominant species

图1

湖北七姊妹山6 ha森林动态监测样地的木本植物(A)种-面积曲线、(B)种-多度曲线、(C)种-多度等级分布曲线"

表1

湖北七姊妹山6 ha森林动态监测样地的优势木本植物种类"

物种 多度 最大胸径 平均胸径 胸高断面积 重要值 叶习性
Species Abundance Max DBH (cm) Mean DBH (cm) Basal area (m2) Importance value Leaf habit
川陕鹅耳枥 Carpinus fargesiana 3,738 60.0 7.03 15.00 8.23 落叶 Deciduous
多脉青冈 Cyclobalanopsis multinervis 4,153 40.8 4.64 8.01 6.06 常绿 Evergreen
交让木 Daphniphyllum macropodum 3,647 30.8 4.42 6.76 5.39 常绿 Evergreen
缺萼枫香 Liquidambar acalycina 479 65.0 16.00 8.72 3.70 落叶 Deciduous
灯台树 Cornus controversa 596 45.2 13.8 7.98 3.66 落叶 Deciduous
四照花 Cornus kousa 2,658 13.8 3.59 2.63 3.35 落叶 Deciduous
亮叶桦 Betula luminifera 559 36.8 13.2 5.96 2.89 落叶 Deciduous
翅柃 Eurya alata 2,398 18.0 2.75 1.12 2.50 常绿 Evergreen
杉木 Cunninghamia lanceolata 1,450 37.0 4.54 2.75 2.25 常绿 Evergreen
黄丹木姜子 Litsea elongata 1,578 17.1 2.94 0.90 2.04 常绿 Evergreen
尖叶四照花 Cornus elliptica 1,332 16.3 3.87 1.62 2.04 常绿 Evergreen
野漆 Toxicodendron vernicifluum 345 30.4 12.60 3.43 1.92 落叶 Deciduous
梾木 Cornus macrophylla 464 33.8 9.20 2.91 1.80 落叶 Deciduous
日本锦带花 Weigela japonica 881 22.0 6.12 1.95 1.77 落叶 Deciduous
茶荚蒾 Viburnum setigerum 1,362 18.0 1.97 0.31 1.68 落叶 Deciduous
君迁子 Diospyros lotus 459 31.0 8.49 2.58 1.57 落叶 Deciduous
中华猕猴桃 Actinidia chinensis 1,071 12.5 2.89 0.52 1.51 落叶 Deciduous
绿叶甘橿 Lindera neesiana 1,360 8.2 1.58 0.18 1.51 落叶 Deciduous
石灰花楸 Sorbus folgneri 433 25.0 6.90 1.55 1.24 落叶 Deciduous
青冈 Cyclobalanopsis glauca 697 25.7 3.89 1.01 1.10 常绿 Evergreen
宜昌木姜子 Litsea ichangensis 807 7.8 2.24 0.24 1.09 落叶 Deciduous
珍珠花 Lyonia ovalifolia 627 15.4 5.00 0.92 1.09 落叶 Deciduous
木姜子 Litsea pungens 523 25.5 4.29 0.71 1.07 落叶 Deciduous
南蛇藤 Celastrus orbiculatus 652 8.9 2.21 0.18 1.04 落叶 Deciduous
油茶 Camellia oleifera 984 23.5 2.97 0.54 1.00 常绿 Evergreen

图2

七姊妹山6 ha森林动态监测样地胸径 ≥ 1 cm木本植物径级分布"

表2

湖北七姊妹山6 ha森林动态监测样地不同起测胸径的植株和科属种数量"

起测胸径 Minimum DBH 个体数 Number of individuals 物种数 Number of species 属数 Number of genera 科数 Number of families
≥ 1.0 cm 50,316 245 124 57
≥ 5.0 cm 12,509 174 100 51
≥ 10.0 cm 5,128 134 84 47
≥ 15.0 cm 2,489 101 68 40
≥ 20.0 cm 1,091 73 50 35
≥ 30.0 cm 175 24 21 16

图3

七姊妹山6 ha森林动态监测样地6种植物的空间分布图。灰色圆圈代表DBH < 10 cm, 黑色圆圈代表DBH ≥ 10 cm。(A)川陕鹅耳枥; (B)多脉青冈; (C)交让木; (D)缺萼枫香; (E)灯台树; (F)翅柃。"

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