生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (1): 80-87.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016156

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论国家公园建设的公众参与

张婧雅, 张玉钧*   

  1. 北京林业大学园林学院, 北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2016-06-12 接受日期:2016-10-06 出版日期:2017-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 张玉钧
  • 基金项目:
    中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(2015ZCQ-YL-04)

On public participation in the construction of national parks

Jingya Zhang, Yujun Zhang*   

  1. School of Landscape Architecture, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
  • Received:2016-06-12 Accepted:2016-10-06 Online:2017-01-20
  • Contact: Zhang Yujun

公众参与是一种提高公众积极性和主动权的新型管理策略, 应用于保护地管理已数十年, 迄今已贯穿于许多国家的国家公园管理环节中, 成为国家公园治理的必然趋势。我国现行的保护地管理体系实行属地管理, 其建设和管理在实际中多为政府行为, 鲜有的公众参与也多为非规范的、被动的。本文梳理并提炼了保护地管理中公众参与的起源、内涵及特征, 在借鉴国外保护地管理公众参与实践经验的基础上, 依照公众参与程度的高低, 将国家公园建设管理的公众参与途径分为信息反馈、咨询、协议与合作4个层次; 提出了我国国家公园的公众参与途径, 旨在为我国国家公园体制的建设管理提供参考。

关键词: 国家公园, 保护地, 公众参与, 利益相关者, 国家公园治理

Public participation is an attempt by development partners to broadly consult and involve the public as to where projects should be situated. The clear trend is toward broader and more frequent public involvement and collaboration for national park governance as public participation has been applied in the management of protected areas for several decades. Public participation in the Chinese protected area system presents a passive and non-standardized situation. The preliminary model of public participation in China’s national parks is presented in this paper through synthesizing the background of the construction of China’s national park system. Results obtained in this research indicate that, according to the degree of public participation, there could be four types of public participation in China’s national parks, which include information feedback, consultation, agreement and partnerships. The impacts of our obtained results provide references for a pilot project involving the construction of China’s national park system.

Key words: national park, protected area, public participation, stakeholders, national park governance

表1

公众参与的不同类别"

Arnstein (1969) Connor (1988) 澳大利亚保护地*
Australia’s Protected area*
公众参与程度
Degree of public participation
操控 Manipulation (政府)决断 Resolution 通知 Inform 低 Low








高 High
治疗 Therapy (政府)诉讼 Litigation 咨询 Consult
告知 Informing 调解、仲裁 Mediation 合作 Collaborate
征询意见 Consultation 与(政府)联合规划 Joint planning 伙伴 Partner
安抚 Placation 咨询 Consultation 移交 Hand Over
合作关系 Partnership 信息互通 Information
契约授权 Delegated power 教育 Education
公众控制 Citizen control

图1

ANT(蚂蚁)模型: 国家公园体制建设的动态运转"

表2

我国国家公园的公众参与途径"

类型
Type
内容
Content
主要参与主体
Main participants
形式
Form
备注
Remark
公众参与程度
Degree of public participation
信息反馈
Information feedback
政府将管理政策等信息通知公众 Govern- ment informs public 公民、社会组织、企业、社区 Citizens, social organizations, enterprises and communities 公众集会、新闻发布会、教育培训、公开出版物、网络等 Public meetings, press releases, education, publication and internet 建立反馈制度, 包括问询、投诉、网页点击率等数量 Feedback system include the numbers of inquiry, complaint and internet hits 低 Low














高 High




咨询
Consult
政府在决策制定时咨询公众 Government consults public for decision-making 社区、社会组织 Communities, social organizations 问卷访谈、利益相关者委员会、咨询会、工作组 Questionare surveys, stakeholder meetings, consultation and workshops 确保利益相关者的多元化 Diversity of stakeholder
协议
Agreement
政府在建设管理过程中雇佣、聘请公众 Government employs public 企业、社区、社会组织、公民 Enterprises, communities, social organizations and citizens 特许经营、协议保护、工作人员、专家聘请、第三方监督、志愿者 Franchise, conservation steward, staff, supervision and volunteer 需构建协议期满后的评估制度 Evaluation scheme
合作
Partner
政府与公众共同分享权责 Government and public (stakeholders) share responsibility 社区、企业 Communities, enterprises 委员会、工作组、社区共管、公私合营等 Committee, work shop, community co-manage- ment and PPP 需依据共同目标和利益确定合作范围、明晰各方权责界限及产出 Outcomes and bound of rights and liabilities based on common aim and interests

图2

国家公园的政府与公众权责关系"

图3

国家公园的政府与公众信息传递"

图4

国家公园的政府与公众资金流动"

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