生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (1): 72-84.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015170

所属专题: 生物多样性与生态系统功能

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生态系统多功能性的测度方法

徐炜1, 井新1, 马志远1, 贺金生1, 2, *()   

  1. 1 (北京大学城市与环境学院生态学系, 北京 100871)
    2 (中国科学院西北高原生物研究所, 西宁 810008);
  • 收稿日期:2015-06-17 接受日期:2015-10-16 出版日期:2016-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 贺金生 E-mail:jshe@pku.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:
    基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(C030301)

A review on the measurement of ecosystem multifunctionality

Wei Xu1, Xin Jing1, Zhiyuan Ma1, Jin-Sheng He1, 2, *()   

  1. 1 Department of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871
    2 Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008
  • Received:2015-06-17 Accepted:2015-10-16 Online:2016-01-20
  • Contact: He Jin-Sheng E-mail:jshe@pku.edu.cn

生物多样性与生态系统多功能性(biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionality, BEMF)之间的关系是目前生态学研究的一个热点, 其中, 生态系统多功能性(EMF)的测度方法是研究该问题的技术关键。由于缺乏统一的认识, 目前存在多个多功能性的测度方法, 这使人们对生物多样性与生态系统多功能性之间关系的理解复杂化。本文介绍了国际上常用的单功能法、功能-物种替代法、平均值法、单阈值法、多阈值法、直系同源基因法和多元模型法的原理及其特点, 并对其中较难理解的多阈值法进行了举例说明, 希望能对理解EMF的测度方法有所帮助。本文按不同的EMF测度方法对已发表的有关文章进行了归类, 以期帮助读者更好地选择EMF的测度方法。由于缺乏相对统一的、代表各个层次的生态系统功能的测度方法, 导致不同的研究结果难以相互比较, 严重限制了生物多样性与生态系统多功能性研究的发展; 所以, 研发新的、具有普遍适用性的EMF测度方法已成为当务之急。

关键词: 生物多样性, 生态系统功能, 生态系统多功能性, 多功能性指数

The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionality (BEMF) is a hot issue in current ecological studies. The measurement of ecosystem multifunctionality (EMF) is a crucial aspect of BEMF research; however, the metrics of EMF have been inconsistent among previous studies. We reviewed seven approaches of quantifying EMF (single function approach, turnover approach, averaging approach, single threshold approach, multiple thresholds approach, orthologous approach and multivariate model approach) and classified the related studies based on the metrics of EMF used. We illustrated the multiple-threshold approach with published data from our previous work to help researchers better understand the approach. The inconsistent use of EMF metrics made it difficult to compare different studies, which constrains further development of BEMF research. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop a general approach to measuring multifunctionality appropriately.

Key words: biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, ecosystem multifunctionality, multifunctionality index

表1

生态系统多功能性(EMF)测度方法的分类及使用情况"

方法
Approach
重要刊物文献数量
No. of papers published in top journals
文献总数
Sum
参考文献
References
单功能法 Single function 1 2 Duffy et al, 2003; Jing et al, 2015
功能-物种替代法 Turnover 3 5 Hector & Bagchi, 2007; He et al, 2009; Isbell et al, 2011; van der Heijden et al, 2015; Lefcheck et al, 2015
平均值法 Averaging 5 14 Hooper & Vitousek, 1998; Mouillot et al, 2011; Maestre et al, 2012a, b; Quero et al, 2013; Bradford et al, 2014a; Pendleton et al, 2014; Soliveres et al, 2014; Wagg et al, 2014; Constán-Nava et al, 2015; Jing et al, 2015; Lefcheck et al, 2015; Lundholm, 2015; Valencia et al, 2015
单阈值法 Single threshold 3 5 Gamfeldt et al, 2008; Zavaleta et al, 2010; Peter et al, 2011; Pasari et al, 2013; Bradford et al, 2014a
多阈值法 Multiple-threshold 3 5 Bradford et al, 2014a; Byrnes et al, 2014a; Jing et al, 2015; Lefcheck et al, 2015; Perkins et al, 2015
多元模型法
Multivariate model
0 1 Dooley et al, 2015
直系同源基因法 Orthologue 0 1 Miki et al, 2014
其他 Others 0 1 Bowker et al, 2013

图1

丛枝菌根真菌(AMF)多样性和达到所测功能最大值的某一阈值的功能数之间的关系。 不同颜色表示不同的阈值, 冷色调表示低阈值, 暖色调表示高阈值。Tmin表示斜率不等于0的最小阈值, Tmde表示斜率最大时的阈值, Tmax是斜率与0有显著差异时的最大阈值。带M的指标表示相应阈值下, 达到该阈值的功能数(数据来自Jing et al, 2015)。"

图2

在不同的阈值下, 丛枝菌根真菌(AMF)多样性和达到所测功能最大值的某一阈值的功能数之间关系的斜率。各个点是拟合值, 阴影表示±1的置信区间。Tmin表示斜率不等于0的最小阈值, Tmde表示斜率最大时的阈值, Tmax是斜率再次不等于0时的最大阈值, Rmde表示在Tmde处估计的最大斜率(数据来自Jing et al, 2015)。"

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