生物多样性 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (6): 725-732.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015147

所属专题: 生态保护红线专题

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中国生态环境脆弱区范围界定

刘军会1, 邹长新2,*(), 高吉喜2, 马苏1, 王文杰1, 吴坤3, 刘洋1   

  1. 1 (中国环境科学研究院, 北京 100012)
    2 (环境保护部南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042)
    3 (茂名市环境保护监测站, 广东茂名 525000)
  • 收稿日期:2015-06-01 接受日期:2015-08-17 出版日期:2015-11-20 发布日期:2015-12-02
  • 通讯作者: 邹长新
  • 基金资助:
    国家环境保护公益性行业科研专项(201209027)和国家自然科学基金(41471092)

Location determination of ecologically vulnerable regions in China

Junhui Liu1, Changxin Zou2,*(), Jixi Gao2, Su Ma1, Wenjie Wang1, Kun Wu3, Yang Liu1   

  1. 1 Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
    2 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing 210042
    3 Maoming Municipal Environmental Protection Monitoring Station, Maoming, Guangdong 525000
  • Received:2015-06-01 Accepted:2015-08-17 Online:2015-11-20 Published:2015-12-02
  • Contact: Zou Changxin

摘要:

中国生态环境脆弱区既是生态退化区域, 也是贫困人口集中分布区, 但其空间分布范围至今仍然不明确。本研究针对土地沙化、水土流失和石漠化等典型生态问题, 采用遥感和GIS技术, 建立评价指标体系及评价模型, 综合评价了全国生态环境敏感性, 定量揭示敏感性空间分布特征。在此基础上, 结合政府文件和已有的研究成果, 识别出全国生态脆弱区分布范围。结果显示, 生态极敏感区主要分布在我国西北干旱/半干旱地区、西南湿润地区、东南湿润地区以及黄土高原丘陵沟壑区; 高度敏感区主要分布在阿尔泰山、天山、阴山南麓、科尔沁沙地、呼伦贝尔沙地、羌塘高原西部、横断山和东南丘陵山地等区域。在全国划定了18个重点生态脆弱区, 总面积240.1万km2, 并明确了每个脆弱区的名称、类型、面积、分布范围以及面临的主要生态问题。完成的中国生态脆弱区分布图为全国生态保护红线划定提供了参考底图。

关键词: 生态脆弱区, 综合生态敏感性, 遥感, GIS, 空间边界

Abstract:

Ecologically vulnerable regions in China are not only the most serious areas of environmental degradation, but also the most poverty-stricken regions. However, these regions are still undefined. Three typical factors including land desertification, soil erosion and rocky desertification were selected to establish an evaluation model of eco-environmental sensitivity by using Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. We conducted a comprehensive research on eco-environmental sensitivity to reveal its spatial features in a quantitative way in China, and redefine the location of ecologically vulnerable regions integrated with the existing relevant government documents and the previous research. Results are demonstrated as follows: the extremely sensitive areas are distributed in northwestern, southwestern, southeastern parts of China and loess hilly regions; the highly sensitive areas are located in the Altai Mountains, the Tianshan Mountains, the southern part of Yinshan Mountains, the Horqin Sandy Land, the Hulun Buir Sandy Land, the western part of Chang Tang Plateau, the Hengduan Mountains and the hilly mountains regions in Southeast China. A total of 18 ecological vulnerable regions in China were defined, comprising a total area of 2.4 million km2. The name, type, area, spatial distribution and the main ecological problems of each region were characterized. The spatial distribution map of ecologically vulnerable regions in China can be used as a base map for the redline delimitation of national ecological protection.

Key words: ecologically vulnerable regions, comprehensive ecological sensitivity, RS, GIS, range