生物多样性 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (6): 716-724.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015140

所属专题: 生态保护红线专题

• • 上一篇    下一篇

论生态保护红线的类型划分与管控

邹长新1,2, 王丽霞1, 刘军会3,*()   

  1. 1 (环境保护部南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042)
    2 (南京信息工程大学江苏省大气环境与装备技术协同创新中心, 南京 210044)
    3 (中国环境科学研究院, 北京 100012)
  • 收稿日期:2015-05-22 接受日期:2015-09-15 出版日期:2015-11-20 发布日期:2015-12-02
  • 通讯作者: 刘军会
  • 基金资助:
    环保公益性行业科研专项(201209027, 201409055)

Classification and management of ecological protection redlines in China

Changxin Zou1,2, Lixia Wang1, Junhui Liu3,*()   

  1. 1 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing 210042
    2 Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology (CICAEET), Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044
    3 Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012;
  • Received:2015-05-22 Accepted:2015-09-15 Online:2015-11-20 Published:2015-12-02
  • Contact: Liu Junhui

摘要:

生态保护红线划定的目的是为了保护支撑人类经济社会可持续发展的自然生态系统, 实施最为严格的管控措施, 不断改善生态系统服务功能。本文根据《环境保护法》规定和国内相关研究与实践积累, 明确了生态保护红线的概念, 提出了以重点生态功能区保护红线、生态敏感区/脆弱区保护红线、禁止开发区保护红线为核心的生态保护红线体系构成。并进一步将重点生态功能区保护红线区分为陆地重点功能区(包括水源涵养区、水土保持区、防风固沙区和生物多样性维护区)和海洋重点功能区(包括海洋水产种质资源保护区、重要滨海湿地、特殊保护海岛、珍稀濒危物种集中分布区、重要渔业水域等); 将生态敏感区/脆弱区保护红线区分为陆地生态敏感区/脆弱区(土地沙化区、水土流失区、石漠化区、盐渍化区)和海洋生态敏感/脆弱区(海岸带自然岸线、红树林、重要河口、重要砂质岸线、沙源保护海域、珊瑚礁及海草床等); 禁止开发区则包含了自然保护区、世界自然文化遗产地、风景名胜区、森林公园、地质公园、湿地公园、饮用水水源地等类型。基于国家关于生态保护红线管控的最新要求, 提出了分级划定、分类管理的生态保护红线基本管控思路与措施, 按照管理分级和围绕生态功能保护来确定具体管控措施, 旨在为增强生态保护效果, 优化国土空间开发格局, 促进生态文明建设提供理论依据。

关键词: 生态保护红线, 类型划分, 分类分级, 管控要求

Abstract

Ecological protection redline delineation aims to protect the natural ecological systems, which support human economic and social sustainable development, and constantly improve ecosystem services through the implementation of strict control measures. Based on the Environmental Protection Law, and related research and practices in China, we make the concept of ecological protection redlines clear, and present potential formation (including key ecological function areas redlines, ecologically sensitive or fragile areas redlines and forbidden development areas redlines). Furthermore, we confirm concrete forms of all kinds of redlines. Key ecological function area redlines are divided into land functional areas (including water source conservation areas, water and soil conservation areas, windbreak and sand-fixation areas and biodiversity maintenance areas) and ocean functional areas (including marine aquatic germplasm resources areas, important coastal wetlands, special protection islands, concentrated distribution area of rare and endangered species, important fishing waters, etc.), ecological sensitive or fragile areas redlines (divided into land ecological sensitive or fragile areas, including land desertification area, soil and water losses areas , rocky desertification areas and soil salinization areas and ocean ecological sensitive or fragile areas, including coastal natural coastline, mangrove forest, important estuarine, important sandpaper coast, sand protection waters, coral reef, sea grass beds, etc.), while forbidden development areas contain nature reserves, world cultural and natural heritage sites, landscape resorts, forest parks, geological parks, wetland parks, drinking water source areas, etc. Based on the latest national regulations for ecological protection and management of redlines, we propose ideas and measures of level delineation and classification management. According to the grading management regarding ecological function protection, this could determine specific control measures, in order to provide scientific support for strengthening ecological protection, optimizing national spatial development pattern, and promoting the construction of ecological civilization.

Key words: ecological protection redlines, type classification, classifying and grading, management requirements