生物多样性 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (5): 619-629.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015110

所属专题: 森林动态监测样地专题

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次生常绿阔叶林的群落结构与物种组成:基于浙江乌岩岭9 ha森林动态样地

仲磊1, 5, 张杨家豪2, 卢品1, 5, 顾雪萍3, 雷祖培4, 蔡延奔3, 郑方东4, 孙义方2, 于明坚1, *()   

  1. 1 浙江大学生命科学学院, 杭州 310058
    2 东华大学自然资源与环境学系, 台湾花莲 97401
    3 温州工业科学研究院, 浙江温州 325028
    4 浙江乌岩岭国家级自然保护区管理局, 浙江泰顺 325500
    5 浙江师范大学化学与生命科学学院, 浙江金华 321004
  • 收稿日期:2015-03-03 接受日期:2015-07-13 出版日期:2015-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 于明坚 E-mail:fishmj202@hotmail.com
  • 基金项目:
    浙江省财政厅、浙江省环保厅《浙江省生态环境10年变化(2000-2010年)遥感调查与评估》项目和温州市科技计划(H20100007)

Community structure and species composition of the secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest: the analyses for a 9 ha forest dynamics plot in Wuyanling Nature Reserve, Zhejiang Province, East China

Lei Zhong1, 5, Chia-Hao Chang-Yang2, Pin Lu1, 5, Xueping Gu3, Zupei Lei4, Yanben Cai3, Fangdong Zheng4, I-Fang Sun2, Mingjian Yu1, *()   

  1. 1 College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058
    2 Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, Dong Hwa University, Hualein, Taiwan 97401
    3 Wenzhou Institute of Industry & Science, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325028
    4 Zhejiang Wuyanling National Nature Reserve Management Bureau, Taishun, Zhejiang 325500
    5 College of Chemistry and Life Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, Zhejiang 321004
  • Received:2015-03-03 Accepted:2015-07-13 Online:2015-09-20
  • Contact: Yu Mingjian E-mail:fishmj202@hotmail.com

常绿阔叶林是我国亚热带地区的地带性植被, 但由于长期的人为干扰, 目前仅有少量分布且主要以次生常绿阔叶林的形式存在。因此, 了解次生常绿阔叶林的物种共存机制对于保护森林生物多样性非常重要。基于大型动态监测样地对森林的物种组成及群落结构进行研究, 是揭示生物多样性维持机制的重要手段。按照美国史密森研究院热带森林科学研究中心(Center for Tropical Forest Science, CTFS)大型森林动态样地建设标准, 于2011-2012年在浙江省乌岩岭国家级自然保护区内建立了1个9 ha森林动态监测样地。通过对样地内胸径≥ 1 cm木本植物的物种组成(如重要值)、群落结构(如区系组成和径级结构等)以及空间分布的分析发现: (1)样地有木本植物存活个体47科92属200种71,396株, 其中壳斗科、樟科、山茶科、冬青科、杜鹃花科和山矾科等占优势; (2)在区系组成上, 热带成分略多于温带成分; (3)群落径级结构接近倒“J”型, 表明群落更新良好, 其中优势种径级结构呈倒“J”型、偏常态型和波动型等各种形态, 且并未表现出种群衰退的趋势; (4)优势种表现出明显的生境偏好和聚集分布格局, 暗示生境异质性可能是影响亚热带次生常绿阔叶林物种空间分布的重要因素。

关键词: 次生常绿阔叶林, 森林动态样地, 种-面积关系, 区系组成, 径级结构, 空间分布

The zonal vegetation type of subtropical China is evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBLF). However, due to long term anthropogenic disturbance, primary EBLF is now scarce in this region; most of the EBLFs exist as secondary forests. Therefore, to preserve the regional forest biodiversity, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying biodiversity maintenance of the regional secondary EBLF. One method for examining the mechanisms of forest biodiversity maintenance is to investigate the species composition and community structure on the basis of a large forest dynamics plot (FDP). According to protocols of Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS), we established a 9 ha FDP in the secondary EBLF of Wuyanling National Nature Reserve in Zhejiang Province, China, during 2011-2012. Here, we carried out analysis on species composition (e.g., importance value), community structure (e.g., floristic composition, size-class structure), and spatial distribution of woody plants with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥1 cm. Results indicated that there were 71,396 woody plant individuals belonging to 200 species, 92 genera and 47 families within the FDP. The dominant families were Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Theaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Ericaceae and Symplocaceae. There were slightly more tropical elements than temperate elements found both at family and genus level. DBH size-classed community structure was reverse ‘J’ shaped, indicating abundant regeneration. Dominant species showed various shapes, such as reverse ‘J’, skewed or waved shapes, but no signs of population decline. Dominant species showed habitat priority and aggregated distribution patterns possibly related to habitat conditions, suggesting that habitat heterogeneity might be responsible to the spatial distribution of the dominant species in this FDP.

Key words: secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest, forest dynamics plot, species-area relationship, floristic composition, DBH size structure, spatial distribution

图1

乌岩岭9 ha森林动态监测样地地理位置及等高线图"

图2

乌岩岭9 ha森林动态监测样地多度和胸高截面积排名前8位的科"

图3

乌岩岭9 ha森林动态监测样地种-面积曲线"

表1

乌岩岭森林动态监测样地物种组成(重要值前15位)"

物种
Species
生长型
Growth form
重要值
Importance value
多度
Abundance
胸高截面积
Basal area at breast height (cm2)
甜槠 Castanopsis eyrei 乔木 Tree 6.910 1,960 648,308.8
褐叶青冈 Cyclobalanopsis stewardiana 乔木 Tree 5.466 2,544 440,337.7
麂角杜鹃 Rhododendron latoucheae 灌木或小乔木 Shrub or small tree 5.079 7,066 133,615.2
木荷 Schima superba 乔木 Tree 4.873 1,789 411,009.1
窄基红褐柃 Eurya rubiginosa var. attenuata 灌木 Shrub 3.930 6,565 26,387.3
浙江新木姜子 Neolitsea aurata var. chekiangensis 小乔木 Small tree 3.109 3,612 92,752.7
马银花 Rhododendron ovatum 灌木 Shrub 2.999 4,004 55,047.9
尖连蕊茶 Camellia cuspidata 灌木 Shrub 2.878 4,223 33,259.9
短尾柯 Lithocarpus brevicaudatus 乔木 Tree 2.686 801 208,432.9
红楠 Machilus thunbergii 乔木 Tree 2.659 1,804 137,991.1
满山红 Rhododendron mariesii 灌木 Shrub 2.193 2,638 55,082.7
格药柃 Eurya muricata 灌木或小乔木 Shrub or small tree 1.808 2,539 13,233.0
凤凰润楠 Machilus phoenicis 小乔木 Small tree 1.760 2,451 10,187.8
拟赤杨 Alniphyllum fortunei 乔木 Tree 1.684 379 129,417.3
雷公鹅耳枥 Carpinus viminea 乔木 Tree 1.630 761 95,254.4

表2

乌岩岭森林动态监测样地木本植物区系类型"

分布区类型
Areal type
科数
No. of
families
科的比例
Proportion of
families (%)
属数
No. of
genera
属的比例
Proportion of genera (%)
1. 广布 Widespread 9 - 0 -
2. 泛热带 Pantropic 14 35.9 17 18.5
3. 东亚及热带南美间断 Tropical Asia and South Tropical America disjuncted 6 15.4 7 7.6
4. 旧世界热带 Old World Tropic 1 2.6 4 4.3
5. 热带亚洲至热带大洋洲 Tropical Asia to Tropical Australasia Oceania 1 2.6 2 2.2
6. 热带亚洲至热带非洲 Tropical Asia to Tropical Africa 0 0.0 2 2.2
7. 热带亚洲 Tropical Asia 1 2.6 12 13.0
热带合计 Total of Tropics (2-7) 23 59.0 44 47.8
8. 北温带 North Temperate 12 30.8 17 18.5
9. 东亚及北美间断East Asia and North America disjuncted 3 7.7 16 17.4
12. 地中海区、西亚至中亚 Mediterranean, West Asia to Central Asia 0 0.0 1 1.1
14. 东亚 East Asia 1 2.6 9 9.8
温带合计 Total of Temperate (8, 9, 12, 14) 16 41.0 43 46.7
15. 中国特有 Endemic to China 0 0.0 5 5.4

图4

乌岩岭9 ha森林动态监测样地胸径≥ 1 cm的木本植物径级分布图"

图5

乌岩岭9 ha森林动态监测样地9个优势种的径级结构"

图6

乌岩岭9 ha森林动态监测样地9个优势种在完全随机模型下的空间分布格局"

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