生物多样性 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (4): 471-478.doi: 10.17520/biods.2014251

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辽河口湿地植物多样性及物种功能型空间分布格局

李有志1, 2, 3, 崔丽娟1, 3, , A;*(), 潘旭1, 3, 宁宇1, 3, 李伟1, 3, 康晓明1, 3, 李凯1, 3, 孙宝娣1, 3, 于菁菁1, 3   

  1. 1 (中国林业科学研究院湿地研究所, 北京 100091)
    2 (湖南农业大学生物科学技术学院, 长沙 410128)
    3 (湿地生态功能与恢复北京市重点实验室, 北京 100091);
  • 收稿日期:2014-12-03 接受日期:2015-05-19 出版日期:2015-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 崔丽娟 E-mail:lkyclj@126.com
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金项目:
    国家林业公益性行业科研专项“滨海湿地生态系统服务功能与评估技术研究(201404305)”

Spatial distribution of plant diversity and functional groups in the Liaohe estuary

Youzhi Li1, 2, 3, Lijuan Cui1, 3, *(), Xu Pan1, 3, Yu Ning1, 3, Wei Li1, 3, Xiaoming Kang1, 3, Kai Li1, 3, Baodi Sun1, 3, Jingjing Yu1, 3   

  1. 1 Institute of Wetland Research, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091 2 College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 3 Beijing Key Laboratory of Wetland Services and Restoration, Beijing 100091
  • Received:2014-12-03 Accepted:2015-05-19 Online:2015-07-20
  • Contact: Cui Lijuan E-mail:lkyclj@126.com
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

辽河口湿地是我国典型的滨海湿地, 在过去几十年受人为过度干扰, 植被变化明显。本研究拟通过野外实地调查揭示辽河口湿地植物多样性及功能型的空间格局。结果表明, 潮上带的物种丰富度和Shannon-Wiener指数均高于潮间带。与潮上带相比, 潮间带的盐生植物与湿生植物比例较高, 而中性植物、甜土植物、中生植物与旱生植物的比例较低。物种丰富度、Shannon-Wiener指数以及中性植物、甜土植物、中生植物、旱生植物的比例均随着与海岸线距离的增加而增加, 盐生植物、湿生植物比例则与之相反。对所调查样地与植物物种的主成分分析(PCA)表明, 潮上带主要为芦苇(Phragmites australis)、刺儿菜(Cirsium setosum)、山莴苣(Lagedium sibiricum)等中性和甜土植物, 潮间带为盐地碱蓬(Suaeda salsa)、扁秆藨草(Scirpus planiculmis)、水烛(Typha angustifolia)等盐生植物。可见, 盐度与水位是决定辽河口湿地植物多样性及物种功能型的关键生态因子。

关键词: 滨海湿地, Shannon-Wiener指数, 盐生植物, 湿生植物

Liaohe estuary is a typical coastal wetland in Northeast China. Over the past decades, vegetation in this area suffered great change due to human disturbance. The spatial distribution of plant diversity and functional groups was examined in this coastal wetland. Results showed that species richness and Shannon-Wiener index were higher in supratidal zones than in intertidal zones. Compared to supratidal zones, intertidal zones had a higher ratio of halophytes and hygrophytes, but a lower ratio of neutral plants, glycophytes, mesophytes, and xerophytes. Species richness, Shannon-Wiener index, and the ratio of neutral plants, glycophytes, mesophytes, and xerophytes increased with the increasing distances from the coastline, while halophytes and hygrophytes decreased. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that plant communities mainly composed of neutral plants and glycophytes in supratidal zones, such as Phragmites australis, Cirsium setosum and Lagedium sibiricum, and halophytes mainly distributed in intertidal zones, such as Suaeda salsa, Scirpus planiculmis and Typha angustifolia. Salinity and water table appear to be the key factors in determining plant diversity and functional groups in the Liaohe estuary.

Key words: coastal wetlands, Shannon-Wiener index, halophyte, hygrophyte

图1

辽河口湿地野外调查样点布局"

表1

辽河口湿地植物多样性及物种功能型方差分析(平均值±标准误)"

潮上带
Supralittoral zone
潮间带
Intertidal zone
自由度
df
F
多样性指数
Diversity indices
物种丰富度 Species richness 2.73 ± 0.17 1.25 ± 0.10 21 61.11***
Shannon-Wiener指数 Shannon-Wiener index 0.58 ± 0.04 0.04 ± 0.02 21 165.59***
盐分功能型比例
Percentage of functional types by salt (%)
盐生植物 Halophyte 32.00 ± 2.23 84.10 ± 8.30 21 23.14***
中性植物 Neutral plants 59.25 ± 3.50 15.13 ± 8.38 21 15.12**
甜土植物 Glycophyte 8.75 ± 2.51 0.77 ± 0.76 21 13.42**
水分功能型比例
Percentage of functional types by water (%)
湿生植物 Hygrophyte 64.29 ± 4.70 99.23 ± 1.04 21 81.89***
中生植物 Mesophyte 22.50 ± 5.21 0.77 ± 0.77 21 27.52***
旱生植物 Xerophyte 13.21 ± 3.49 0 21 24.04***

图2

植物多样性与距海岸线距离的回归"

图3

植物功能型比例与距海岸线距离的回归分析"

图4

样方与植物物种的主成分分析。图中数字1-61表示野外调查样方。s1, 芦苇; s2, 刺儿菜; s3, 山莴苣; s4, 野大豆; s5, 碱蓬; s6, 地肤; s7, 尖头叶藜; s8, 鹅绒藤; s9, 扁杆藨草; s10, 白茅; s11, 罗布麻; s12, 木贼; s13, 拂子茅; s14, 黄花蒿; s15, 西伯利亚蓼; s16, 藜; s17, 盐地碱蓬; s18, 歧茎蒿; s19, 小果酸模; s20, 水烛; s21, 稗; s22, 野青茅; s23, 糙叶薹草。"

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