生物多样性 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (2): 210-216.doi: 10.17520/biods.2014205

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海州湾蟹类群落种类组成及其多样性

罗西玲, 任一平, 邢磊, 徐宾铎*()   

  1. 中国海洋大学水产学院, 山东青岛 266003
  • 收稿日期:2014-09-25 接受日期:2015-01-28 出版日期:2015-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 徐宾铎 E-mail:bdxu@ouc.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:
    海洋公益性行业科研专项经费(201305030)、高等学校博士学科点专项科研基金(20120132130001)和中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(201262004)

Species composition and diversity of crab assemblage in Haizhou Bay

Xiling Luo, Yiping Ren, Lei Xing, Binduo Xu*()   

  1. College of Fisheries, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, Shandong 266003
  • Received:2014-09-25 Accepted:2015-01-28 Online:2015-03-20
  • Contact: Xu Binduo E-mail:bdxu@ouc.edu.cn

本研究根据2011年3月、5月、7月、9月和12月在海州湾海域进行的渔业资源底拖网调查数据, 采用Margalef种类丰富度指数(D)、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H′)和Pielou均匀度指数(J′)等分析了该海域蟹类群落种类组成及其多样性的时空变化。结果表明, 本次调查共捕获蟹类34种, 隶属于18科27属, 其中玉蟹科种数最多, 有3属4种。从适温属性来看, 主要以暖水种(16种)和暖温种(15种)为主, 冷温种3种。蟹类群落各多样性指数的月际间变化较大, 其中物种丰富度指数(D)3月最高, 12月最低; 多样性指数(H′)和均匀度指数(J′)均在7月最高, 12月最低。多样性指数的空间分布呈现一定的月变化: 在3月、5月、7月均表现为北高南低; 9月为中部低, 南、北部海域较高; 12月均呈南高北低的趋势。蟹类单位网次渔获尾数空间分布格局呈现明显的月变化; 平均单位网次渔获尾数呈现一定的月变化, 总体上表现为3月、5月、12月高于7月和9月。Pearson相关分析结果表明, 在5月, 多样性指数(H′)和均匀度指数(J′)与底层水温呈显著负相关, 与底层盐度呈极显著正相关, 多样性指数还与水深呈显著正相关; 12月均匀度指数与底层水温和水深均呈极显著负相关, 与底层盐度呈显著负相关; 在3月、7月和9月, 各多样性指数与底层水温、底层盐度及水深均无显著相关性。海州湾蟹类种类组成及多样性的时空变化主要与海州湾地处温带海域、水温等海洋环境因子的季节变化以及优势种的数量分布有关。

关键词: 海州湾, 蟹类, 生物多样性, 时空分布

The species composition and diversity of crab assemblage in Haizhou Bay was assessed using bottom-trawl survey data collected in March, May, July, September, and December, 2011. Crab species composition and the spatio-temporal variations in species diversity of communities were examined using ecological diversity indices. In total, 34 crab species belonging to 18 families and 27 genera were caught during the surveys. There were 16 warm water species, 15 warm temperate species and 3 cold temperate species. Margalef’s species richness index (D) was highest in March and lowest in December while the Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H′) and Pielou evenness index (J′) were highest in July and lowest in December. Diversity, richness, and evenness also varied spatially over time. In March, May and July the highest values occurred in the northern area of the survey site and lowest in the southern part. In September, values were lowest in the central survey site and high in the northern and southern areas. In December, values were low in northern survey site and high in southern areas. The number of individuals per haul per hour varied spatially and temporally by month with higher numbers in March, May and December. Correlation analysis showed that crab community species diversity was significantly affected by water temperature, salinity, depth and the season in Haizhou Bay. The spatio-temporal variations in species composition and diversity of crab assemblage in Haizhou Bay are primarily related to the seasonal changes in environmental factors such as bottom water temperature and the spatial distribution of main dominant species.

Key words: Haizhou Bay, crabs, species diversity, spatio-temporal distribution

图1

海州湾渔业资源底拖网调查区域图"

图2

海州湾蟹类群落多样性指数的月变化(均值+标准差)"

图3

海州湾海域蟹类群落各多样性指数及单位网次渔获尾数的空间分布"

表1

海州湾蟹类多样性指数与环境因子的Pearson相关性分析"

月份
Month
种类丰富度指数
Margalef species richness index (D)
多样性指数
Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H′)
均匀度指数
Pielou evenness index (J′)
3月 March (n = 24)
底层水温 Bottom water temperature -0.269 -0.353 -0.399
底层盐度 Bottom water salinity -0.282 -0.137 -0.114
水深 Water depth -0.047 0.293 0.107
5月 May (n = 24)
底层水温 Bottom water temperature -0.160 -0.493* -0.418*
底层盐度 Bottom water salinity 0.294 0.677** 0.548**
水深 Water depth 0.180 0.488* 0.287
7月 July (n = 14)
底层水温 Bottom water temperature -0.001 -0.066 -0.047
底层盐度 Bottom water salinity 0.145 0.003 -0.402
水深 Water depth -0.209 0.031 0.071
9月 September (n = 14)
底层水温 Bottom water temperature -0.108 -0.006 -0.240
底层盐度 Bottom water salinity 0.208 0.191 0.417
水深 Water depth 0.303 0.025 0.021
12月 December (n = 24)
底层水温 Bottom water temperature -0.036 -0.149 -0.531**
底层盐度 Bottom water salinity 0.074 -0.159 -0.423*
水深 Water depth -0.236 -0.312 -0.605**

附表1

海州湾海域捕获蟹类名录"

科 Family 3月 March 5月 May 7月 July 9月 Sept. 12月 Dec. 适温类型
Temperature adaptive type
瓷蟹科 Porcellanidae
细足蟹属 Raphidopus
绒毛细足蟹 Raphidopus ciliatus + + + WW
豆瓷蟹属 Pisidia
锯额豆瓷蟹 Pisidia serratifrons + WW
大眼蟹科 Macrophthalmidae
三强蟹属 Tritodynamia
霍氏三强蟹 Tritodynamia horvathi + T
兰氏三强蟹 Tritodynamia rathbunae + + + T
豆蟹科 Pinnotheridae
豆蟹属 Pinnotheres
中华豆蟹 Pinnotheres sinensis + + T
圆豆蟹 Pinnotheres cyclinus + T
海阳豆蟹 Pinnotheres haiyangensis + T
短眼蟹科 Xenophthalmidae
短眼蟹属 Xenophthalmus
豆形短眼蟹 Xenophthalmus pinnotheroides + WW
弓蟹科 Varunidae
近方蟹属 Hemigrapsus
中华近方蟹 Hemigrapsus sinensis + T
肉球近方蟹 Hemigrapsus sanguineus + WW
倒颚蟹属 Asthenognathus
异足倒颚蟹 Asthenognathus inaequipes + T
关公蟹科 Dorippidae
拟关公蟹属 Paradorippe
端正拟关公蟹 Paradorippe polita + + WW
颗粒拟关公蟹 Paradorippe granulata + + CT
拟平家蟹属 Heikeopsis
日本拟平家蟹 Heikeopsis japonicus + + + + + WW
黄道蟹科 Cancridae
黄道蟹属 Cancer
隆背黄道蟹 Cancer gibbosulus + + + + + CT
静蟹科 Galenidae
精武蟹属 Parapanipe
贪精武蟹 Parapanipe euagora + WW
宽背蟹科 Euryplacidae
强蟹属 Eucrate
隆线强蟹 Eucrate crenata + + + + + WW
菱蟹科 Parthenopidae
菱蟹属 Parthenope
强壮菱蟹 Parthenope validus + + + + + WW
毛刺蟹科 Pilumnidae
毛刺蟹属 Pilumnus
小型毛刺蟹 Pilumnus spinulus + + + + T
异毛蟹属 Heteropilumnus
披发异毛蟹 Heteropilumnus ciliatus + + T
拟盲蟹属 Typhlocarcinops
沟纹拟盲蟹 Typhlocarcinops canaliculata + WW
绵蟹科 Dromiidae
板蟹属 Petalomera
沈板蟹 Petalomera sheni + + + + + T
扇蟹科 Xanthidae
大权蟹属 Macromedaeus
特异大权蟹 Macromedaeus distinguendus + + + WW
梭子蟹科 Portunidae
梭子蟹属 Portunus
三疣梭子蟹 Portunus trituberculatus + + + + + WW
蟳属 Charybdis
日本蟳 Charybdis japonica + + + + + WW
双斑蟳 Charybdis bimaculata + + + + + T
突眼蟹科 Oregoniidae
突眼蟹属 Oregonia
枯瘦突眼蟹 Oregonia gracilis + + + + + T
卧蜘蛛蟹科 Epialtidae
矶蟹属 Pugettia
四齿矶蟹 Pugettia quadridens + + + + + CT
玉蟹科 Leucosiidae
五角蟹属 Nursia
斜方五角蟹 Nursia rhomboidalis + + + T
栗壳蟹属 Arcania
球形栗壳蟹 Arcania globata + + + + + WW
圆十一刺栗壳蟹 Arcania novemspinosa + + + + T
拳蟹属 Philyra
杂粒拳蟹 Philyra heterograna + T
长脚蟹科 Goneplacidae
隆背蟹属 Carcinoplax
泥脚隆背蟹 Carcinoplax vestita + + + + + WW
盲蟹属 Typhlocarcinus
裸盲蟹 Typhlocarcinus nudus + WW
总种数 Total number of species 34
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