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    Special Feature: Plant Ex Situ Conservation Target
    Discussion on the plant ex situ conservation
    Chen Jin, Yang Xi
    Biodiv Sci. 2024, 32 (2):  24064.  doi:10.17520/biods.2024064
    Abstract ( 686 )   HTML ( 31 )   PDF (403KB) ( 651 )   Save
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    Aims Plant ex situ conservation will be a core task in the on-going construction of the national botanical garden system of China. However, many issues regarding the status and role of plant ex situ conservation in biodiversity conservation, as well as how to set up the goals for plant ex situ conservation in China, are still under discussion. The objective of this study is to address these unresolved issues.

    Methods The study utilizes literature reviews and international conventions such as the “Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework” and the upcoming “Complementary Actions Related to Plant Conservation to Support the Implementation of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework”.

    Results Through a review of the development history and achievements of plant ex situ conservation over the past 40 years, this paper clarifies some doubts and misconceptions about plant ex situ conservation. Furthermore, this article proposes the goals of plant ex situ conservation in China, as “Establish programs to ensure ALL threatened plant species are effectively conserved by ex situmethodologies, aiming to achieve genetically diverse representations”.

    Conclusion The establishment of the national botanical garden system in China presents an opportunity to enhance plant ex situ conservation efforts. By improving the quality of processes involved in ex situ conservation program, China can elevate its conservation practices to a higher level.

    Ex situ conservation should have clear flexibility
    Liu Su, Du Cheng, Hu Yonghong
    Biodiv Sci. 2024, 32 (2):  24037.  doi:10.17520/biods.2024037
    Abstract ( 359 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (243KB) ( 287 )   Save
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    Early news reports questioned the feasibility of the national botanical garden system’s ambition to “gradually achieve the ex situ protection of more than 85% of China’s wild native plants and all key protected wild plant species.” However, the National Botanical Garden System Layout Plan of China outlines more realistic objectives. By 2025, the plan aims to establish approximately five national botanical gardens, ensuring over 70% of national key protected wild plants are subject to ex situ protection. Further, by 2035, the goal is to set up around ten national botanical gardens, effectively protecting over 80% of the national key protected wild plants ex situ. To enhance ex situ conservation, the botanical garden system should establish precise grading standards, providing clear flexibility. Even if ex situ cultivation falls short of meeting the highest conservation standards, it may still be considered a lower level of ex situ conservation. Integration of ex situ conservation efforts with the Chinese botanical garden system, encompassing national botanical gardens, outstanding regional botanical gardens, and local botanical gardens, is crucial. The potential for national network sharing of plant introduction data opens avenues for intermediate and grassroots botanical gardens to participate in ex situ conservation and share responsibilities. The relationship between ex situ conservation and in situ conservation, as well as introduction and domestication, is not one of antagonism. While in situ conservation is preferable, the two approaches are complementary. Ex situ conservation and introduction and domestication are not mutually exclusive; they can concurrently achieve goals of protection and development. Overall, a crucial focus for the future of ex situ conservation work is the establishment of precise grading standards and robust data networks to clarify the relationship between ex situ conservation and other conservation forms and ensure clear flexibility.

    Ex situ conservation: From living plant conservation to seed bank
    Zhang Zhixiang, Shang Ce
    Biodiv Sci. 2024, 32 (2):  24053.  doi:10.17520/biods.2024053
    Abstract ( 319 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (235KB) ( 381 )   Save
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    Reflections on the ex situ conservation target of botanical gardens
    Ren Hai
    Biodiv Sci. 2024, 32 (2):  24015.  doi:10.17520/biods.2024015
    Abstract ( 435 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (266KB) ( 472 )   Save
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    Original Papers: Plant Diversity
    Community composition and structure of a 25-ha forest dynamics plot of subtropical forest in Baishanzu, Zhejiang Province
    Liu Xiaolin, Wu Yougui, Zhang Minhua, Chen Xiaorong, Zhu Zhicheng, Chen Dingyun, Dong Shu, Li Buhang, Ding Bingyang, Liu Yu
    Biodiv Sci. 2024, 32 (2):  23294.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023294
    Abstract ( 405 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (2589KB) ( 369 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Aim This study surveys the species composition, floristic characteristics, size-class distribution and spatial distribution of dominant species within the subtropical evergreen forest of Baishanzu, Zhejiang Province, characterized by a complex community structure at medium-high altitudes, in order to lay a scientific foundation for the study of community assembly and species coexistence mechanisms.

    Method Employing Forest Global Earth Observatory (ForestGEO) and the China Forest Biodiversity Monitoring Network protocols, we expanded the original 5-ha plot to a 25-ha forest dynamics plot within the Fengyangshan- Baishanzu National Nature Reserve in Qingyuan County, Zhejiang Province between 2014 and 2016. Surveying all woody plants with a stem diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 1 cm, we meticulously analyzed species composition, floristic characteristics, DBH class distribution, and spatial distributional patterns within the plot.

    Results The plot harbored a total of 210,556 individuals of woody plants with DBH ≥ 1 cm, representing 163 species, 85 genera, and 43 families. Notably, tropical floristic elements dominated at the family level (20 families) compared to families with temperate features (17 families). At the genus level, however, the floristic characteristics of the plant community were more temperate (47 genera of temperate floristic elements versus 33 genera of tropical floristic elements). Rare and occasional species contributed significantly to species richness (35.58% and 25.77%, respectively). Evergreen species constituted 55.21% of the total species richness, with 25 species having high importance values (IV) ≥ 0.01, accounting for the majority of abundance (85.84%) and basal area (91.18%). Dominant species with the highest IV included Rhododendron latoucheae, Pinus taiwanensis, and Cunninghamia lanceolata. The plot exhibited successful regeneration, as indicated by an inverted “J” shaped diameter class distribution with a greater number of individuals in the smaller DBH classes. All the dominant species exhibited aggregated spatial distribution across scales (1-100 m) and exhibited habitat preferences.

    Conclusion The majority of species presented in the forest dynamics plot are temperate floristic elements and evergreen species, which are the characteristics of medium-high altitude evergreen forest in East China. The dominant species in the plot have significant association with habitat, which suggests that habitat filtering plays an important role in the distribution of woody plants in this area.

    Effects of soil type and groundwater depth on spatial differentiation of typical salt marsh plant communities in the Yellow River Delta
    Zhang Naipeng, Liang Hongru, Zhang Yan, Sun Chao, Chen Yong, Wang Lulu, Xia Jiangbao, Gao FangLei
    Biodiv Sci. 2024, 32 (2):  23370.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023370
    Abstract ( 147 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (883KB) ( 136 )   Save
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    Aims Zonation patterns of plant communities are determined by abiotic factors, such as soil salinity across the elevation gradient at the coastal salt marsh. Currently, little study has tested the spatial variation of zonation patterns at the costal salt marsh in the Yellow River Delta. In this study, we fill this knowledge gap by conducting a simulated experiment in a greenhouse to investigate the effects of soil type and groundwater depth on the spatial differentiation of salt marsh plant communities.

    Methods We constructed plant communities consisting of seven common species in the Yellow River Delta in two soil types (i.e., coastal soil and shell sand soil), and subjected them to eight levels of soil depth. After two months, we counted the number of living species and measured aboveground biomass of each species.

    Results (1) Richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity index of plant communities in the shell sand soil were greater than that in the coastal soil, and plant richness exhibited a unimodal pattern as groundwater depth increased in the sand soil. Plant richness did not exhibit the same unimodal pattern for coastal soil. The same unimodal pattern was observed for Shannon-Wiener diversity in response to increasing the groundwater depth in both shell sand soil and coastal soil, peaking at groundwater depths of 60 cm and 70 cm, respectively. (2) With increasing of groundwater depth, plant communities in the shell sand soil changed from halophytic community type dominated by Suaeda salsa and Cynanchum chinense to mesophytic community type dominated by Artemisia mongolica and Ziziphus jujujuba. However, aboveground biomass of plant communities was unaffected by soil type, and only showed a unimodal pattern with increasing groundwater depth. (3) Water content in the shell sand soil was significantly lower than that in the coastal soil, decreasing as groundwater depth increased and stabilizing at a depth of 60 cm. Similarly, water content of the coastal soil showed a negative relationship as groundwater depth increased, keeping stable from a depth of 50 cm. (4) Salt content of the coastal soil was significantly greater than that of the shell sand soil. Salt content of the shell sand soil showed a bimodal pattern as groundwater depth increased. However, salt content of the coastal soil was unaffected by groundwater depth. (5) Bulk density and capillary porosity of the shell sand soil were significantly lower than those of the coastal soil. Shell sand soil had the highest content of coarse sand particles, while coastal soil had the highest content of fine sand particles. These results indicate that the shell sand soil is composed of coarser particles, which determines its low bulk density and capillary porosity.

    Conclusion The low bulk density and capillary porosity of the shell sand soil can block capillary action of highly mineralized groundwater to reach the surface, thereby reducing the salt and water content of the shell sand soil and creating continuously changing habitats including saline and dry habitat and thus maintaining high biodiversity. The coastal soil is composed of finer particles, which determines its high capillary porosity. Groundwater can rise to the soil surface and deposit large quantities of salt, forming saline soil and thereby reducing plant diversity. Thus we conclude that both soil type and groundwater depth in typical wetlands of the Yellow River Delta drive changes in soil water and salt transportation patterns, resulting in different ecological effects, which determines spatial differentiation and biodiversity maintenance of plant communities in the typical salt marshes of the Yellow River Delta.

    Patterns and drivers of plant species richness in Phragmites australis marshes in China
    Meng Jingci, Wang Guodong, Cao Guanglan, Hu Nanlin, Zhao Meiling, Zhao Yantong, Xue Zhenshan, Liu Bo, Piao Wenhua, Jiang Ming
    Biodiv Sci. 2024, 32 (2):  23194.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023194
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    Aims Determining the distribution pattern and drivers of broad-scale species richness is significant for predicting the response to biodiversity and formulating conservation programs to reduce biodiversity loss. This paper discusses the distribution pattern and driving mechanism of plant species richness obtained from nationwide field survey of Phragmites australis marsh data, combined with climate, geography, soil, and other environmental factors.

    Method Initially, we used correlation analysis and general linear model to determine the relationship between species richness and annual mean temperature (MAT), annual precipitation, minimum temperature of coldest month (MTCM), altitude, latitude, longitude, soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), soil total nitrogen (TN), and topographic wetness index (TWI). Then, we used hierarchical partitioning to determine the most important drivers of species richness utilizing the following nine variables: soil factors (soil pH, SOC, TN), climate factors (MAT, annual precipitation, MTCM), geography factors (latitude, altitude), and water regime. Finally, piecewise structural equation modeling was used to assess the direct and indirect effects of these nine variables on plant species richness.

    Results (1) The overall richness of plant species in Chinese P. australis marshes was (a) higher in the subtropical humid zone, temperate humid and semi-humid zone, and (b) lower in the Tibetan Plateau region, temperate arid and semi-arid zone, and coastal region. (2) The richness of plant species in P. australis marshes was significantly positively correlated with annual precipitation, SOC, TN, and latitude, but negatively correlated with the MAT, MTCM, soil pH, and altitude. (3) Soil factors, especially soil pH, were the most important factors affecting the richness of plant species in P. australis marshes, followed by water regime, climate factors, and geography factors. (4) Piecewise structural equation modeling showed that soil factors, water regime, and climate factors directly affected the richness of plant species, while geography factors indirectly affected the species richness of plants by regulating soil factors, water regime, and climate factors.

    Conclusion Species richness of plants in Chinese P. australis marshes is spatially heterogeneous between the different regions. The species richness distribution pattern is affected by a combination of factors, where soil factors are the key environmental factors affecting the species richness pattern of plants. This study provides a new understanding of the broad-scale distribution pattern of plant diversity and the pattern’s conservation in P. australis marshes.

    Distribution pattern of bryophyte diversity and environmental impact factors in urban parks of Shanghai
    Wu Xiangzhang, Lei Fumin, Shan Yiyi, Yu Jing
    Biodiv Sci. 2024, 32 (2):  23364.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023364
    Abstract ( 454 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (1825KB) ( 343 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Aims Urban parks are very rich in biodiversity and play an important role in conservation. Bryophytes are an important component of this biodiversity, but due to their small size and the challenges associated with their identification, they tend to be overlooked. Research on these nonvascular plants is therefore comparatively lacking. We aim to strengthen the comprehensive understanding of urban biodiversity by including robust information on bryophytes and promote urban conservation.

    Methods Based on the literature data and ecological survey data, we integrated the list of bryophytes from 35 sample points in central urban areas and suburb areas of Shanghai. We applied cluster analysis to group the parks and compared the similarity of bryophytes in urban and suburban areas. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and hierarchical partitioning methods were used to quantitatively study the relationship between environmental factors and the distribution of bryophyte species diversity.

    Results The results showed that 164 species of bryophytes belonging to 74 genera in 34 families lived in 35 parks. This grouping included 9 species belonging to 8 genera in 7 families of liverworts and 155 species belonging to 66 genera in 27 families of mosses. Twelve of these species are endemic to China and four species are considered Near Threatened. According to the results of cluster analysis, these 35 parks can be divided into two groups, distinguished by population density, distance to the city center, distance to the primary highway, and park area. The Jaccard similarity coefficients of families, genera and species in urban and suburban areas were 0.94, 0.89, and 0.30, respectively, indicating that the species composition of the two areas had their own characteristics. The hierarchical partitioning method showed that the environmental factors that explained the distribution pattern of bryophyte diversity in urban parks were, from high to low, DOP (population density), AGI (age of the park), DIS2 (distance to the city center), DIS1 (distance to the primary highway), LPT (proportion of lake area to park area), FPT (proportion of forest area to park area), and AREA (park area).

    Conclusion On the whole, the species diversity of bryophytes in Shanghai’s urban parks is rich and there are some differences in the species composition between urban parks and suburban parks. Both regions play an important role in the conservation of bryophyte diversity. We revealed the effects of different environmental factors such as DOP, DIS1 and FPT on the distribution pattern of bryophyte diversity in urban parks, in order to strengthen the comprehensive understanding of urban bryophyte diversity and promote the protection of urban ecosystems and bryophyte diversity.

    Original Papers: Animal Diversity
    Interspecific associations between Rhinopithecus brelichi and its sympatric species using infrared cameras
    Huang Xiaolong, Meng Bingshun, Li Haibo, Ran Wei, Yang Wei, Wang Cheng, Xie Bo, Zhang Xu, Ran Jingcheng, Zhang Mingming
    Biodiv Sci. 2024, 32 (2):  23402.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023402
    Abstract ( 536 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF (1899KB) ( 404 )   Save
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    Aims Interspecific relationships is one of the core topics in community ecology researches, and it is vital for understanding the species evolution and for developing effective conservation policies. In order to comprehensively protect the Guizhou snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus brelichi), it is extremely important to understand its interspecific relationships with other species in its community.

    Method Using infrared camera monitoring data from the Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve from 2017 to 2022, this study used the spatial correlation method to construct an association network between R. brelichi and terrestrial birds and mammals. From this, we discuss the ecological function of R. brelichi in the community with implications for its protection.

    Results The results showed that: (1) Rhinopithecus brelichi was spatially associated with the Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana), Temmick’s tragopan (Tragopan temminckii), Chinese serow (Capricornis milneedwardsii), crab-eating mongoose (Herpestes urva), Himalayan porcupine (Hystrix brachyura), greater hog badger (Arctonyx collaris), wild boar (Sus scrofa), koklass pheasant (Pucrasia macrolopha) and Chinese muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi). Overall, the species composition of the communities in which R. brelichi was found was relatively similar to that of the golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana). (2) There were no terrestrial predators of R. brelichi in the Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve. (3) Rhinopithecus brelichi was ecologically in competition with Capricornis milneedwardsii, Herpestes urva, Hystrix brachyura, Sus scrofa, Muntiacus reevesi and Pucrasia macrolopha, so excessive population growth of these species may crowd R. brelichi and inhibit its population growth. (4) Rhinopithecus brelichi can benefit from coexisting with Macaca thibetana and Tragopan temminckii, so conservation efforts aimed at protecting these species will also be beneficial for R. brelichi.(5) Effective protection of R. brelichi will also benefit Arctonyx collaris and Tragopan temminckii, so its conservation will stabilize the ecological community.

    Conclusion This preliminary study explores the interspecific ecological relationships of R. brelichi with sympatric species. The findings indicate that not only does R. brelichi benefit from the other species in its community, but it also serves an ecological function that benefits the rest of the community. We strongly recommend that a comprehensive and balanced multi-species conservation strategy, as an effective supplement to the protection for R. brelichi, should be implemented and enhanced in the long-term biodiversity conservation and management in Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve.

    Original Papers: Microbial Diversity
    Investigation of species diversity of myxomycetes in Dabie Mountains
    Lin Di, Chen Shuanglin, Du Que, Song Wenlong, Rao Gu, Yan Shuzhen
    Biodiv Sci. 2024, 32 (2):  23242.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023242
    Abstract ( 241 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (3062KB) ( 240 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Aims Myxomycetes (or Myxogastrea) are one of the elementary taxa of the biodiversity components in terrestrial ecosystems. Myxomycetes play important ecological roles in forests. Dabie Mountains are one of the most important mountains with biodiversity significance in Central China and even in China. However, the previous survey of the species diversity of myxomycetes is limited to the site of Tiantangzhai National Forest Park. Myxomycetes in other areas of the Dabie Mountains are unknown. In this study, we are striving to fully obtain and understand the basic information of myxomycete species diversity to reveal species compositions and distribution characteristics of myxomycetes in the Dabie Mountains.

    Method An investigation into myxomycete species was conducted in 21 nature reserves or national forest parks in the Dabie Mountains during August 2020 and September 2022. The habitats of species were surveyed and recorded. Specimens were collected directly in the field and harvested in moist chamber culture. Species were identified based on morphological taxonomy.

    Results A total of 984 specimens were obtained by field collection and substrate wet chamber culture and all myxomycete specimens were identified as 93 species belonging to 32 genera, 13 families, and 6 orders. Presently in China, Craterium muscorum and Diderma fragile were only recorded in the Dabie Mountains. Totally, 48 species including Ophiotheca pedata, Stemonitis herbatica and Trichia varia for the Dabie Mountains were firstly recorded. Based on the principle dividing relative abundance (RA) of myxomycete species, 11 species were abundant (RA > 3%), 8 species were common (RA = 1.5%-3.0%), 30 species were occasional (RA = 0.5%-1.5%) and 44 species were rare (RA < 0.5%). Species richness of myxomycetes varied among different habitats, types of substrates and forest types in the Dabie Mountains. The species richness at Dongzhai Nature Reserve, Henan Province was higher than those at other 20 protective areas, in which 41 species were found, the species/genus ratio was 1.95, and 3 species were specific. The richness of myxomycete species on rotten wood was higher than those on living bark, living grass and litters, on which 77 species were found, the species/genus ratio was 2.75, and 42 species were specific. The richness of myxomycete species in conifer-broadleaf mixed forest was higher than those in the coniferous forest and broad-leaved forest, in which 81 species were found, the species/genus ratio was 2.89, and 28 species were specific.

    Conclusion The species composition and richness of myxomycetes are different among 21 protective areas of the Dabie Mountains, thus forming different species distribution patterns. The species diversity of myxomycetes in rotten wood and conifer-broadleaf mixed forests is higher than those on other growth substrate and single forest type. It provides important information on myxomycete diversity for a comprehensive understanding of the biodiversity in the Dabie Mountains.

    Data Paper
    Beetle data set collected by pitfall trapping in the gobi desert of the Hexi Corridor
    Ren Jialong, Wang Yongzhen, Feng Yilin, Zhao Wenzhi, Yan Qihan, Qin Chang, Fang Jing, Xin Weidong, Liu Jiliang
    Biodiv Sci. 2024, 32 (2):  23375.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023375
    Abstract ( 258 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (2877KB) ( 209 )   Save
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    The diversity of beetles in the gobi desert is highly sensitive to climate change and human disturbance, the number, diversity, and functional traits of beetles can be used to evaluate the health and stability of the gobi desert ecosystem. The accumulation of monthly dynamic changes in the distribution and diversity of beetles in the gobi desert can provide data support for the study of animal diversity protection and maintenance mechanisms in desert ecosystems. The central part of the Hexi Corridor is one of the main distribution areas of the gobi desert. In 2012, we established a long-term monitoring set for the distribution and diversity of ground beetles in the north of Linze state desertification land blocking reserve, Gansu Province, located in the central part of the Hexi Corridor. This dataset mainly accumulates information on ground beetle species composition, beetle species photos, activity rhythms, quantity, and functional traits in the gobi desert. This dataset can be used for the identification of typical desert beetle species, the comparison of functional traits of typical beetle species and their spatial and temporal distribution patterns in response to climate change and anthropogenic perturbations.

    Database/Dataset Profile
    Title Beetle data set collected by pitfall trapping in the gobi desert of the Hexi Corridor
    Authors Jialong Ren, Yongzhen Wang, Yilin Feng, Wenzhi Zhao, Qihan Yan, Chang Qin, Jing Fang, Weidong Xin, Jiliang Liu
    Corresponding authors Jiliang Liu (liujl707@lzb.ac.cn)
    Time range 2014.05.01-2020.12.31
    Geographical scope the North Linze County, Zhangye City, Gansu Province (100°10° E, 39°41° N)
    File size 101 MB
    Data format *.zip
    Data link https://www.scidb.cn/s/fYvUVb
    https://doi.org/10.17520/sciencedb.06308
    https://www.biodiversity-science.net/fileup/1005-0094/DATA/2023375.zip
    Database/Dataset composition This dataset consists of six parts: (1) Monthly precipitation and average temperature information in the gobi desert; (2) Collection of specimens and ecological photos of typical beetle species in the gobi desert; (3) Information on the composition and functional traits of beetle species in the gobi desert; (4) Composition of ground beetle fauna in the gobi desert; (5) Statistics of monthly activity rhythm of ground beetles in the gobi desert; (6) The number of individual ground beetles at 72 uniform grid points in the gobi desert from May 2014 to December 2020.
    Reviews
    Ecological impacts of centralized large-scale photovoltaics and wind farms: Progress and prospects
    Peng Yunyue, Luo Yongmei, Xu Zenan, Jin Tong
    Biodiv Sci. 2024, 32 (2):  23212.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023212
    Abstract ( 905 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (1439KB) ( 744 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Background and AimsDriven by China’s carbon neutrality goals, renewable energy is growing drastically, spurring the large-scale development of photovoltaics (PVs) and wind power. Despite this prevalence, systematic reviews detailing the ecological concerns associated with these technologies are scarce.

    Method We provide an overview of domestic and international research on the environmental impact of centralized PV and onshore wind farms, focusing on species diversity and ecosystem services.

    Results PVs and wind farms both alter climate factors, including temperature, humidity and wind speed. The construction of PVs and wind farms damages vegetation, causing soil erosion and water loss. Construction also results in solid waste and wastewater, contributing to pollution around the site. The ecological impact of PVs is mainly reflected by changes in vegetation and habitat quality, which can have adverse effects on certain species. In relatively arid areas, PVs can play a role in lowering temperatures and increasing humidity, promoting vegetation recovery. In desert areas, they can act as windbreaks. Wind farms can result in soil and vegetation disturbances, bird collisions and mortality, and habitat fragmentation, all of which affect species migration and regional ecosystem services. Despite these potential issues, current research remains insufficient in assessing ecological impact systematically.

    Prospects We recommend research focusing on three particular areas: (1) Improving and unifying survey methods for accessing ecological impacts on centralized PVs and wind farms; (2) Adopting advanced ecological survey techniques; and (3) Strengthening systematic studies on ecological impacts at the species and ecosystem levels. Moving forward, it is necessary to study the ecological impacts of PVs and wind farms in depth. Biodiversity assessments should be implemented at the early stages of energy planning, and corresponding mitigation strategies should be adopted.

    Status, threats and conservation suggestions on seagrass beds in Guangdong
    Zhong Chao, Liao Yaqin, Liu Weijie, Sui Haozhi, Chen Qinghua
    Biodiv Sci. 2024, 32 (2):  23201.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023201
    Abstract ( 362 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (1952KB) ( 353 )   Save
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    Background & Aims Seagrass beds rank among the earth’s most valuable ecosystems, providing extensive ecosystem services to human. Despite their global significance, seagrass beds in the world, particularly in China, face threats from human activities, leading to their degradation. While recent studies in Guangdong Province have increasingly elucidated the distribution characteristics of seagrass beds and threats from multiple sources, a systematic summary of these findings remains limited. Given the anticipated continued pressure of high intensity human activities in the future period of time along the Guangdong coast, a deeper understanding of the challenges faced by seagrass beds in crucial from formulating targeted conservation suggestions aimed at effectively preserving their biodiversity.

    Review results In this work, we comprehensively reviewed research results on Guangdong seagrass beds since the 21st century and summarized the information on their distribution of seagrass beds. Through a combination of field investigations and domestic and international research, we identified to Guangdong seagrass beds. The results showed that seagrass was widely distributed along the Guangdong coast, covering an area of 1,540 ha and comprising five species. Halophila ovalis and H. beccarii were both dominant species, while Zostera japonica, Halodule uninervis, Ruppia brevipedunculata had more limited distribution. This paper illustrated the impact of both human and natural factors on growth and distribution of seagrass, and pointed out that human activities such as mariculture, fishing, land-based pollution, marine engineering as primary threats. Moreover, the study acknowledged the significance of species invasion and global climate change.

    Perspectives Aiming at threats mentioned above, we proposed conservation suggestions that building upon established protection measures. These recommendations include strengthening scientific research on seagrass bed ecosystem, improving the ability of survey and surveillance on seagrass, establishing a regulatory system for protecting seagrass, managing and controlling pollutant emissions, reinforcing ecological restoration of seagrass beds, and launching popular science activities and awareness campaigns.

    Current status and challenges on the effects of chytrid infection on amphibian populations
    He Zhirong, Wu Siyu, Shi Yingying, Wang Yuting, Jiang Yixin, Zhang Chunna, Zhao Na, Wang Supen
    Biodiv Sci. 2024, 32 (2):  23274.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023274
    Abstract ( 283 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF (7725KB) ( 277 )   Save
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    Background & Aim Strengthening biodiversity conservation and building a community with a shared future for life on earth is a major strategy for China. Amphibians are the most severely threatened group of vertebrates in terms of biodiversity. The infection of two species of chytrid, Batrachchytrium dendrobatidis(Bd) and B. salamandrivorans(Bsal), has become one of the main factors affecting the decline in amphibian diversity. Bd mainly infects the skin of amphibians in the ordersAnura, Caudata, and Gymnophiona, which may cause lymphocyte apoptosis and imbalance of systemic electrolytes in amphibians. Bsalmainly infects the order Caudata, which may lead to fatal sepsis in amphibians. Up to now, a large number of studies on chytrid and the impact of chytrid infections on amphibian populations have been carried out abroad. However, the research in this field in China remains limited.

    ProgressFirstly, we analyzed and summarized the possible origin and transmission of chytrid, the pathogenesis of chytrid infection, the influencing factors of chytrid virulence, and the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of chytrid pathogens by retrieving existing literature from domestic and foreign databases from 1990 to 2022. Secondly, we discussed future research directions and requirements for improving technical methods, such as using whole-genome sequencing technology for traceability, developing RPA technology for field detection, and applying transcriptomics to study host-pathogen immunity.

    Suggestions & Perspective (1) Build a basic data platform for chytrid, establish a routine detection department for chytridiomycosis and add the monitoring of chytridiomycosis to the wild animal disease monitoring system; (2) Conduct in-depth research on the different geographical zoning of amphibians in China related to the infection of chytrid; (3) Explore interdisciplinary and departmental cooperation, such as epidemiology, immunology, microbiology, ecology and so on; (4) Strengthen international exchange and cooperation, establish a model for predicting the infection of chytrid in a unique Asian environment. This study will expand new ideas for our protection of amphibians and contribute to the sustainable development of amphibian protection in China.

    Conservation and Governance
    Biodiversity credits: Concepts, principles, transactions and challenges
    Peng Yunyue, Jin Tong, Zhang Xiaoquan
    Biodiv Sci. 2024, 32 (2):  23300.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023300
    Abstract ( 606 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (483KB) ( 593 )   Save
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    Aim & Background Unlike biodiversity offsets, which are based on the premise of biodiversity loss, biodiversity credits are an economic instrument that is measurable, traceable, tradable, and generates net biodiversity gains. To address the funding gap for biodiversity and to halt and reverse global biodiversity loss, biodiversity credits have emerged with carbon credits as a blueprint.

    Results This paper introduced the conceptual framework of biodiversity credits, providing a detailed explanation of their similarities and differences with biodiversity offsets and carbon credits. Drawing on the foundation of high-quality carbon credits, the paper summarized the principles of biodiversity credits, including their accounting approaches and governance systems. Furthermore, it presented the current global market for biodiversity credits, offering specific practical examples of various trading projects.

    Prospects The paper also examined four aspects of problems and challenges related to biodiversity credits: (1) pricing in voluntary markets lacks clear standards; (2) the risk of being a potential greenwashing tool used by enterprises; (3) regulatory and governance systems need safeguards for transparency and community rights; (4) the compatibility with carbon credits is controversial. Looking forward, challenges and opportunities of biodiversity credits co-exist as a critical tool for businesses to achieve their Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) goals.

    Problem review and optimization path of local legislation in nature reserves in China based on empirical analysis
    Suo Di, Yu Ruoxi, Li Yuanhui, Xu Jiliang
    Biodiv Sci. 2024, 32 (2):  23287.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023287
    Abstract ( 273 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (415KB) ( 188 )   Save
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    Background & Aim The construction of relevant laws and regulations in nature reserves plays an important role in combating various illegal and criminal activities that damage nature reserves, maintaining national ecological security, protecting biodiversity, preserving natural heritage and improving the quality of ecological environment. Local legislation is an important part of the legal system of nature reserves in China. There are lots of local legislations on nature reserves in China, but there is still a certain gap between them and the current requirements of ecological civilization construction and quality and efficiency improvement of nature reserve management. In order to enhance the implementation effect of local legislation on nature reserves in China and make it play an important role in protecting biodiversity, we studied the development dilemma and optimization path of local legislation on nature reserves.

    Method Our study searched and summarized a total of 116 effective local legislations of nature reserves in China. We then analyzed the characteristics of local legislations of nature reserves in China from the aspects of spatial and temporal distribution, number of legislations and legislative models. Through literature and comparative research, we conducted in-depth analysis of the problems existing in local legislations of nature reserves.

    Review Results We found that the local legislation of nature reserves mainly presents the characteristics of large legislative time span, rapid growth in the number of legislation in the new era, wide geographical distribution of legislation, and the combination of comprehensiveness and specialization in the legislative model. At present, the local legislation of nature reserves is facing many problems, such as outdated legislation, conflicting legislation, repeated legislation and so on.

    Conclusion In order to adapt to China’s reform goal of “establishing a natural reserve system with national parks as the main body”, we can try to work hard from the two dimensions of legislative clean-up and legislative characteristics in the future, speed up the process of local legislative clean-up, and highlight local legislative characteristics, so as to improve the quality and effectiveness of local legislation in China’s nature reserves.


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