生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (4): 456-467.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.12043

所属专题: 微生物多样性专辑

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极地陆域微生物多样性研究进展

孔维栋*()   

  1. 中国科学院青藏高原研究所高寒生态学与生物多样性实验室, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2013-02-16 接受日期:2013-07-15 出版日期:2013-07-20 发布日期:2013-07-29
  • 通讯作者: 孔维栋
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院百人计划项目(KZZD-EW-TZ-14)

A review of microbial diversity in polar terrestrial environments

Weidong Kong*()   

  1. Key Laboratory of Alpine Ecology and Biodiversity, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
  • Received:2013-02-16 Accepted:2013-07-15 Online:2013-07-20 Published:2013-07-29
  • Contact: Kong Weidong

摘要:

极地是指高纬度、高海拔地区, 包括南极(60°S以南)、北极(60°N以北)和被称为“第三极”的青藏高原地区(平均海拔4,500 m)。这些地区气温极低、养分极度贫乏, 生态系统非常脆弱, 对全球气候变化极为敏感, 该地区生态系统一旦破坏将很难恢复。尽管极地地区自然条件恶劣, 但在这些极端环境中栖息着大量微生物, 是元素生物地球化学循环的主要驱动者, 对极地生态系统的构建和维持具有非常重要的作用。本文综述了极地土壤、湖泊和冰川等陆域环境微生物研究进展。在这些极地环境中, 目前已发现了Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria和Firmicutes等类群, 这些微生物具有嗜盐/耐盐及耐低温等特征。我国在极地微生物生态学研究方面落后于发达国家, 建议优先发展较易到达的青藏高原地区微生物生态学长期定位观测, 这将有助于较快提升我国极地微生物多样性研究水平, 深入了解极端生命过程及其生态学效应。

关键词: 微生物多样性, 南极, 北极, 青藏高原

Abstract:

Polar regions refer to the areas at high latitudes and altitudes, that are characterized by low temperature and limited nutrients, and are very vulnerable and sensitive to global climate change. They include the Antarctic, the Arctic and the Tibetan Plateau, which is recognized as “the third pole”. The harsh polar environments are inhabited by abundant microbes that shape and maintain ecosystems by driving biogeochemical cycles. This article herein reviews microbial diversity in these polar terrestrial environments, including soils, lakes and glaciers in the Antarctic, the Arctic and the Tibetan Plateau. In the three poles, five major groups of microbes have been detected, e.g. Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cynobacteria, and Firmicutes. These microbes are salt- and cold-tolerant. Research in polar microbial ecology in China is currently lagging behind developed countries. Priorities should be given to long-term observations on the Tibetan Plateau, which is easily approached. This will facilitate microbial ecology research and expand our understanding of microbial processes and their ecological roles in extreme environments.

Key words: microbial diversity, Antarctic, Arctic, the Tibetan Plateau