生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (8): 1036-1044.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019269

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    

西南喀斯特地区生物文化多样性的演化与耦合: 以贵州兴义坡岗自然保护区为例

毕兴1,2, 杨朝辉1,3, 王丞1,3, 粟海军1,3, 张明明1,3,*()   

  1. 1. 贵州大学林学院, 贵阳 550025
    2. 兴义市林业局, 贵州兴义 562400
    3. 贵州大学生物多样性与自然保护研究中心, 贵阳 550025
  • 收稿日期:2019-08-29 接受日期:2020-04-07 出版日期:2020-08-20 发布日期:2020-09-30
  • 通讯作者: 张明明
  • 作者简介:. E-mail: mmzhang@gzu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    贵州省科技计划项目(黔科合支撑)([2019]2842号);贵州大学培育项目黔科合平台人才([2018]5781-39号)

Coupling and co-evolution of biological and cultural diversity in the karst area of southwest China: A case study of Pogang Nature Reserve in Guizhou

Xing Bi1,2, Zhaohui Yang1,3, Cheng Wang1,3, Haijun Su1,3, Mingming Zhang1,3,*()   

  1. 1 College of Forestry, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025
    2 Forestry Bureau of Xingyi, Xingyi, Guizhou 562400
    3 Research Center of Biodiversity and Nature Conservation in Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025
  • Received:2019-08-29 Accepted:2020-04-07 Online:2020-08-20 Published:2020-09-30
  • Contact: Mingming Zhang

摘要:

本文以具有典型喀斯特环境特点的贵州兴义坡岗自然保护区为例开展实地调查和文献研究。通过层次分析法和人与自然耦合系统模型构建, 从文化景观视角探讨了喀斯特地区自然与文化系统的历史演化过程中, 国家生态政策制度与乡规民约等乡土保护体系对生物文化多样性的驱动作用。研究结果表明: 坡岗保护区经历了管护主体和保护利用态度的转变, 保存了典型的喀斯特自然生态系统, 当地世居的少数民族群体在长期生存与适应过程中创造了极具特色的传统民族文化。坡岗自然保护区丰富的生物多样性与文化多样性形成一个地理重合、协同进化且相互作用的维持系统。生物文化多样性耦合体系主要存在国家政策制度类与乡规民约等乡土文化类两种驱动因素。应加强西南喀斯特地区的生物文化多样性的保护, 推动该地区生物多样性与文化多样性的协同发展; 除了政策与制度类驱动因子的直接作用, 还需要注重村规民约以及生态传统知识等乡土文化的驱动作用, 以避免保护区自然与文化保护体系的割离。

关键词: 喀斯特, 生物文化多样性, 文化景观, 坡岗自然保护区

Abstract:

Biodiversity is strongly linked with cultural diversity, positively influencing the balance of natural and social ecosystem. We studied the historical co-evolution of biological and cultural diversity by analyzing the distribution and change of cultural landscapes in Pogang Nature Reserve, Guizhou, China, a representative karst area. We then assessed how the national ecological policy and rural protection systems influenced bio-cultural diversity, based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and a model of coupled human and natural systems (CHANS). Our results show that a complete and typical natural karst ecosystem was preserved in Pogang Nature Reserve, despite repeated alteration of management practices and changes in the attitudes toward protection and land use. Local residents in the Pogang Nature Reserve created a distinctive traditional culture following a process of long-term adaptation to the karst environment. Biodiversity and cultural diversity patterns in the Pogang Nature Reserve overlapped geographically, and two main interventions facilitated the maintenance of the coupled system based on their co-evolution: government policies and traditional village rules and regulations. The protection of bio-cultural diversity in Pogang Nature Reserve and other karst areas should be prioritized to promote coordinated development of both biological and cultural diversity. To avoid the separation of nature conservation and culture conservation, our results suggest that the government and the administrative department of Pogang Nature Reserve should not only make proactive policies supporting biodiversity conservation, but also enhance protection and maintenance of traditional village rules and regulations and local culture in and around the reserve.

Key words: karst, bio-cultural diversity, cultural landscape, Pogang Nature Reserve in Guizhou