生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (2): 204-217.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016055

• • 上一篇    下一篇

中国南部热带植物区系

朱华*()   

  1. 中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园综合保护中心, 云南勐腊 666303
  • 收稿日期:2016-02-26 接受日期:2016-08-10 出版日期:2017-02-20 发布日期:2017-03-06
  • 通讯作者: 朱华
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金面上项目(41471051, 31170195, 41071040)

Tropical flora of southern China

Hua Zhu*()   

  1. Center for Integrative Conservation, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mengla, Yunnan 666303
  • Received:2016-02-26 Accepted:2016-08-10 Online:2017-02-20 Published:2017-03-06
  • Contact: Zhu Hua

摘要:

中国的热带地区包括西藏东南部、云南西南到东南部、广西西南部、广东雷州半岛、台湾的南部和海南岛。依据现有植物区系的记录和资料, 中国的热带地区至少具有野生种子植物227科2,181属12,844种。中国的热带植物区系以热带和主产热带, 但分布区延伸到亚热带和温带的科为主, 在属的组成上, 也以热带分布属占优势, 并以热带亚洲分布属所占比例最大, 标志着其热带边缘性质和具有热带亚洲植物区系的特点。因不同地区地质历史及生态环境的差异, 中国热带植物区系在不同地区的组成和地理成分也有一定差异。总的来说, 我国西南部到东南部各热带地区的植物区系科和属的相似性分别在90%和64%以上, 但种的相似性一般低于50%。具体而言, 西藏东南部与云南东南部显示出具有更多的共同优势科属和更大的植物区系相似性; 云南南部和东南部热带亚洲成分比例最高, 虽然它们之间在种的相似性上最大, 但在优势的科属上差异较大; 海南植物区系热带成分总体比例最高, 其中又以泛热带分布比例最大。中国热带植物区系在不同地区间演化和发展上的差异与喜马拉雅隆升过程中发生的地质事件有关, 如印度支那板块向东南逃逸、云南发生地质板块顺时针旋转和位移、云南南部与东南部在地质历史上曾有的隔离以及海南岛向东南的位移等。

关键词: 中国南部, 热带植物区系, 组成, 特征, 起源与演化

Abstract:

The Chinese tropical region has generally been recognized to be the area on the northern edge of tropical Asia, and includes southeastern Xizang (Tibet), southern Yunnan, southwestern Guangxi, southern Taiwan, and Hainan Island. Based on present floristic records and data from these tropical areas, 12,844 species of seed plants including 2,181 genera and 227 families, are recognized. The families that are distributed mainly in tropical areas but extended to the temperate zone contribute to the majority of the flora of tropical China, and genera with tropical distributions make up the most of the total flora, which indicate that the flora of tropical areas in China is marginally tropical in nature. The genera with the tropical Asian distribution contributed to the highest portion among the various distribution types, which implies tropical Asian or Indo-Malaysia affinity of the tropical flora of China. The tropical flora of China has conspicuous variations in floristic composition and geographical elements from region to region due to different geological history and ecological environments, although the floristic similarities at the family and generic levels are more than 90% and 64%, respectively but lower than 50% at the specific level, among the compared regional floras from southwestern China and southeastern China. We found that there are more similar dominant families and genera, and also higher similarities between families and genera between southeastern Tibet (Xizang) and southeastern Yunnan. The floras of southern and southeastern Yunnan have a higher portion of the tropical Asian elements compared with other tropical floras in China, and although they have the highest similarity at specific level, the dominant families and genera have conspicuous differences between them. The flora of Hainan has the highest ratio of tropical elements, of which the pan-tropical element has the highest portion. Differences in characteristics and evolution in these tropical floras could be influenced mainly by historical events occurring with uplift of Himalayas, such as the southeastward extrusion of the Indochina geoblock, clockwise rotation and southeastward movement of Lanping-Simao geoblock, divergent geological histories between southern and southeastern Yunnan, and southeastward movement of Hainan Island.

Key words: southern China, tropical flora, floristic composition, characteristics, origin and evolution