生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (3): 313-320.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015367

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滇西南四个自然保护区鱼类多样性及评价指标探究

周伟*(), 李明会, 李有兰   

  1. 西南林业大学云南省森林灾害预警与控制重点实验室, 昆明 650224
  • 收稿日期:2015-12-23 接受日期:2016-03-01 出版日期:2016-03-20 发布日期:2016-04-05
  • 通讯作者: 周伟
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31160419)和西南林业大学云南省省级重点学科(林学)支持

Fish diversity in four nature reserves in Southwest Yunnan, China and the evaluation indicators

Wei Zhou*(), Minghui Li, Youlan Li   

  1. Key Laboratory of Forest Disaster Warning and Control in Yunnan Province, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224
  • Received:2015-12-23 Accepted:2016-03-01 Online:2016-03-20 Published:2016-04-05
  • Contact: Zhou Wei

摘要:

为了解滇西南怒江水系的南滚河自然保护区、南捧河自然保护区、永德大雪山自然保护区及澜沧江水系的澜沧江自然保护区鱼类多样性和变化趋势, 探讨其差异和变化的原因, 本文采用β多样性指数分析了4个保护区的鱼类多样性, 并比较了鱼类分类阶元的特有性、单型性和古老成分的有无等多项指标。结果显示, 4个自然保护区共有土著鱼类85种, 隶属于6目13科45属。在中国仅见于怒江水系的4个特有属有异鲴属(Aspidoparia)和新条鳅属(Neonoemacheilus)分布于这3个保护区中; 18种特有种中, 仅分布在这3个保护区的狭域特有种5种。在中国仅分布于澜沧江水系的属有31个, 但仅安巴沙鳅属(Ambastaia)分布于澜沧江保护区; 在澜沧江保护区分布着中国仅见于澜沧江水系的特有种20种, 其中狭域特有种3种。怒江水系的3个保护区分布有1个单型属, 即鳗鲡属(Anguilla), 但没有单型种; 澜沧江自然保护区无单型属与单型种分布。4个保护区中的鱼类均系晚第三纪和第四纪形成的种类或类群, 没有古老或孑遗种类。β多样性结果显示, 在4个保护区中澜沧江自然保护区的鱼类多样性最丰富, 而南滚河自然保护区的丰富程度最低, 但是怒江水系3个自然保护区鱼类多样性的代表性及保护地位比澜沧江自然保护区的要高。而特有阶元和单型性阶元的存在体现出怒江水系3个自然保护区的保护价值及保护意义比澜沧江保护区高。地理范围跨度大小、生境空间异质性高低、保护区面积大小及支流多少等是影响鱼类多样性的主要因素。因此, 规划和设计保护区时, 如果能在水系的上、中、下游分别规划1条一级支流作为保护区, 可使该水系的绝大多数鱼类得到保护。

关键词: 鱼类多样性, 单型性, 特有性, β多样性指数, 滇西南

Abstract

This study investigated the diversity of fish species in the Nangunhe, Nanpenghe, Yongde Daxueshan and Lancangjiang nature reserves in Southwest Yunnan, China. The β diversity index, current and ancient endemic and monotypic taxa of inhabitants were used to compare the differences in present and historic fish species and genera composition among the nature reserves. The mechanisms behind difference in fish species diversity among the nature reserves were also investigated. We recorded 85 extant native species, belonging to 6 orders, 13 families, and 45 genera. There are four endemic genera and 18 endemic species being observed in Nujiang River system in China. The genera Aspidoparia and Neonoemacheilus and five endemic species occurred in these three nature reserves (Nangunhe, Nanpenghe, Yongde Daxueshan reserves). There have been 31 genera occurred only in the Lancangjiang River system in China, but the only genus observed in the Lancangjiang Nature Reserve was Ambastaia. In China twenty species were observed only in Lancangjiang Nature Reserve, three of which were only found in this reserve. Among the three nature reserves within the Nujiang river system, only one monotypic genus Anguilla and no monotypic species were observed. No monotypic genera or species were observed in the Lancangjiang Nature Reserve. Comparisons of observed species and groups with fossil records show that the current fishes of Yunnan are species and groups that evolved in the later Tertiary and Quaternary periods, and there are no old or relic species currently present. The β diversity index showed that fish diversity was greatest in the Lancangjiang Nature Reserve, and the lowest in the Nangunhe Nature Reserve. However, the fish diversity representation and protected status in the three nature reserves located within the Nujiang River system are higher than those in the Lancangjiang Nature Reserve. The existence of monotypic species and taxa in the three nature reserves within the Nujiang River system reflects the importance of fisheries protection within these reserves. Geographical location, the length, heterogeneity, number of river branches in the reserve explained difference in fish diversity among the four nature reserves. In order to provide protection to the greatest number of fish species, the first branches in the upper, middle and lower regions of the river system should be designated as reserves.

Key words: fish diversity, monotypic, endemic, βdiversity index, Southwest Yunnan