生物多样性 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (6): 708-715.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015131

所属专题: 生态保护红线专题

• • 上一篇    下一篇

国外生态保护地体系对我国生态保护红线划定与管理的启示

刘冬, 林乃峰, 邹长新*(), 游广永   

  1. 环境保护部南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042
  • 收稿日期:2015-05-18 接受日期:2015-11-23 出版日期:2015-11-20 发布日期:2015-12-02
  • 通讯作者: 邹长新
  • 基金资助:
    环保公益性行业科研专项(201209027, 201409055)

Development of foreign ecological protected areas and linkages to ecological protection redline delineation and management in China

Dong Liu, Naifeng Lin, Changxin Zou*(), Guangyong You   

  1. Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing 210042
  • Received:2015-05-18 Accepted:2015-11-23 Online:2015-11-20 Published:2015-12-02
  • Contact: Zou Changxin

摘要:

中国共产党第十八届三中全会和《环境保护法》明确提出依法划定生态保护红线, 实施最为严格的源头保护制度。世界上大多数国家都实行了将天然或近天然的区域划作保护地、建立生态空间体系对物种及其生境进行保护。在国际上虽未有“生态保护红线”这一提法, 但是划定生态保护区域的做法是相似的。作者基于相关文献, 对世界自然保护联盟(IUCN)保护地系统, 以及美国、欧盟、俄罗斯、日本等地区和国家的生态保护地(区)体系的保护地面积和管理实践进行了系统梳理和总结。大多数国家的生态保护地(区)的面积在5-40%之间, 并建立了专门的保护管理职能部门或成立了多部门分工负责的管理体制, 根据人类活动强度的不同制定差异化的管控措施。对比我国现有保护地体系的空缺分析以及保护地分类管理中存在的问题, 本文提出了整合与优化我国现有各类保护区域, 通过重要性、敏感性评价对在生态系统服务功能、生物多样性和生境保护方面作用最为重要的土地优先划入生态保护红线内, 面积比例以占到陆地国土总面积的30%以上为宜。为严守生态保护红线, 根据我国现有部门职能分工, 建议强化环境保护部门对生态保护红线区域的统一监督管理职能, 制定生态保护红线管理办法, 在生态保护红线区域内实行分级分类管理。

关键词: 生态保护红线, 保护地, 生态安全, 管理

Abstract

Ecological protection redline (EPR) is a new concept recently put forward in the Environmental Protection Law of the People's Republic of China and the Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. Policy regarding the implementation of protection is strictest in EPR areas. Although there was no EPR worldwide previously, most countries had established protected areas, a similar practice to EPR, in natural or near natural areas, aiming at protecting species, habitats and ecosystems. In this paper, we summarize the ecological protection systems and their management practice executed by IUCN and in other foreign countries (USA, EU, Russia, Japan, etc.) based on relevant literature. Ecological protection areas range from 5% to 40% for most countries. In these countries, a specific management system is either governed by a special protection management department or a multi-sectoral management division. Different management and control measures are decided according to the human activity intensities. Based on gap analysis research in China’s presently protected areas and problems in classification management of protected areas, we suggest integrating and optimizing different types of protected areas by evalua- ting their importance and sensitivity. Land with important ecological service, biodiversity and habitat protection functions should be preferentially included in EPR. The area ratio assigned to EPR should be up to 30% of the total land area. We propose that unified supervision and management by China’s environmental protection departments should be strengthened, establishing EPR management laws and regulations, and implementing different management measures according to its classifications.

Key words: ecological protection redline, protected area, ecological security, management practice