Biodiversity Science ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (10): 1105-1116.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016225

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Diversity and distribution patterns of climbing plants in the Himalayan region

Liang Hu*()   

  1. Geography and Planning School, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275
  • Received:2016-08-17 Accepted:2016-10-19 Online:2016-11-10
  • Hu Liang E-mail:huliang_hy@163.com

The Himalayas are a biodiversity hotspot. In this study, the taxonomic diversity of climbing plants in the Himalayan region and its connection with neighbouring regions were analyzed, the distribution patterns of climbers in the Himalayas and the Indo-Gangetic Plain were compared, and mechanisms were discussed. Results showed that: (1) The Himalayan region harbored a total of 1,083 climbing species in 309 genera and 72 families. Approximately 66.9% (725 species) of these species were woody or semi-woody climbers (lianas) and the remaining 33.1% (358 species) were herbaceous (vines). Twining climbers accounted for 51.3% of the climbing plants in this region. (2) The climbing plant flora in the Himalayas was significantly affected by neighboring floras. About 74.1% (802 species) of the climbers in the Himalayas were also found in Southeast Asia, 548 species (50.6%) were found in South Asia, and 530 species (48.9%) were found in Southwest China. Only 125 climbers (11.5%) were endemic to this region and no endemic genus was recorded. (3) Species diversity of climbing plants and their proportion in the flora gradually decreased from east to west in the Himalayas. Twining climbers and lianas became more dominant in the western regions. At the genus level, species diversity of most climber-rich genera decreased westward across the Himalayas and species diversity of only a few genera (e.g. Vicia and Cuscuta) showed an increase from east to west. (4) The distribution patterns of climbing plants in the Himalayas and the Indo-Gangetic Plain were consistent. However, species diversity was higher in the Himalayas and its decreasing trend westward was more significant. At the genus level, the average decreasing rate of climber-containing genera from east to west is 8.4 genera per 100 km in the Himalayas and 6.3 genera per 100 km in the Indo-Gangetic Plain. A total of 272 climber-containing genera in the Himalayas were shared with the Indo-Gangetic Plain, and 196 genera were not found in the west regions (Central Asia and Iranian plateau). In the 196 genera, 61 genera (31.1%) were distributed more to the west in the Himalayas than in the Indo-Gangetic Plain, while only 8 genera (4.1%) were distributed more to the west in the Indo-Gangetic Plain than in the Himalayas. In conclusion, species diversity and distributional characteristics of climbers in the Himalayas were attributed in part to the geographical location of this region, the altitudinal and longitudinal gradients of climate and habitats, and the diversification of adjacent floras. The similarities of the distribution patterns of climbing plants in the Himalayas and the Indo-Gangetic Plain may be primarily due to similar east-west water gradients.

Key words: liana, vine, climbing method, Himalayan region, Indo-Gangetic Plain

Table 1

Taxonomic composition of the families containing climbing plants in the Himalayan region"

科名 Family 藤本总种数
No. of climbers
草质藤本
Vines
木质藤本
Lianas
科名 Family 藤本总种数
No. of climbers
草质藤本Vines 木质藤本Lianas
豆科 Leguminosae 162 75 87 胡颓子科 Elaeagnaceae 6 0 6
夹竹桃科 Apocynaceae 124 25 99 唇形科 Lamiaceae 6 0 6
旋花科 Convolvulaceae 69 52 17 木通科 Lardizabalaceae 6 0 6
葫芦科 Cucurbitaceae 58 55 3 报春花科 Primulaceae 6 0 6
葡萄科 Vitaceae 50 7 43 苦苣苔科 Gesneriaceae 6 1 5
毛茛科 Ranunculaceae 46 5 41 天门冬科 Asparagaceae 6 3 3
茜草科 Rubiaceae 42 27 15 西番莲科 Passifloraceae 6 3 3
蔷薇科 Rosaceae 38 0 38 马钱科 Loganiaceae 5 0 5
胡椒科 Piperaceae 28 1 27 猕猴桃科 Actinidiaceae 4 0 4
防己科 Menispermaceae 27 7 20 叶下珠科 Phyllanthaceae 4 0 4
薯蓣科 Dioscoreaceae 27 26 1 苋科 Amaranthaceae 4 1 3
鼠李科 Rhamnaceae 25 0 25 爵床科 Acanthaceae 4 3 1
木犀科 Oleaceae 21 0 21 紫草科 Boraginaceae 3 0 3
菝葜科 Smilacaceae 21 0 21 荨麻科 Urticaceae 3 0 3
卫矛科 Celastraceae 20 0 20 车前草科 Plantaginaceae 3 3 0
天南星科 Araceae 19 0 19 牛栓藤科 Connaraceae 2 0 2
菊科 Compositae 15 7 8 第伦桃科 Dilleniaceae 2 0 2
桑科 Moraceae 14 0 14 买麻藤科 Gnetaceae 2 0 2
番荔枝科 Annonaceae 13 0 13 莲叶桐科 Hernandiaceae 2 0 2
五加科 Araliaceae 12 0 12 白花丹科 Plumbaginaceae 2 0 2
芸香科 Rutaceae 12 0 12 檀香科 Santalaceae 2 0 2
龙胆科 Gentianaceae 12 11 1 鸭跖草科 Commelinaceae 2 2 0
马兜铃科 Aristolochiaceae 11 5 6 无患子科 Sapindaceae 2 2 0
桔梗科 Campanulaceae 11 11 0 茄科 Solanaceae 2 2 0
棕榈科 Arecaceae 10 0 10 漆树科 Anacardiaceae 1 0 1
山柑科 Capparaceae 10 0 10 绣球科 Hydrangeaceae 1 0 1
禾本科 Poaceae 10 0 10 铁青树科 Olacaceae 1 0 1
蓼科 Polygonaceae 10 8 2 山柚子科 Opiliaceae 1 0 1
使君子科 Combretaceae 9 0 9 泡桐科 Paulowniaceae 1 0 1
金虎尾科 Malpighiaceae 8 0 8 远志科 Polygalaceae 1 0 1
罂粟科 Papaveraceae 7 7 0 心翼果科 Cardiopteridaceae 1 1 0
茶茱萸科 Icacinaceae 7 0 7 石竹科 Caryophyllaceae 1 1 0
清风藤科 Sabiaceae 7 0 7 秋水仙科 Colchicaceae 1 1 0
五味子科 Schisandraceae 7 0 7 兰科 Orchidaceae 1 1 0
锦葵科 Malvaceae 7 1 6 百部科 Stemonaceae 1 1 0
大戟科 Euphorbiaceae 7 3 4 总计 Total 1,083 358 725
忍冬科 Caprifoliaceae 6 0 6

Table 2

Subdivision of climbing plants and their proportions (%) in the spermatophyte flora of the Himalayan region"

地区 District 缠绕藤本 Twining climbers 卷须藤本 Tendrillar climbers 吸附藤本 Adhesive climbers 蔓生藤本 Sprawling climbers
东南段 SE. Himalaya 312 (48.6) 109 (17.0) 59 (9.2) 162 (25.2)
不丹段 Bhutan 317 (53.6) 94 (15.9) 29 (4.9) 151 (25.5)
尼泊尔段 Nepal 276 (55.0) 90 (17.9) 21 (4.2) 115 (22.9)
北阿肯德段 Uttarakhand 183 (53.7) 63 (18.5) 21 (6.2) 74 (21.7)
喜马偕尔段 Himachal 123 (60.6) 46 (22.7) 7 (3.4) 27 (13.3)
克什米尔段 Kashmir 103 (57.5) 33 (18.4) 12 (6.7) 31 (17.3)
总计 Total 556 (51.3) 177 (16.3) 80 (7.4) 270 (24.9)

Table 3

The most climber-rich genera in the Himalayan region and its neighbouring regions"

喜马拉雅 Himalaya 东南亚 SE. Asia 南亚 S. Asia 中国西南 SW. China 伊朗高原 Iranian Plateau 中亚 C. Asia
铁线莲属 Clematis (41) 省藤属 Calamus (87) 银背藤属 Argyreia (39) 铁线莲属 Clematis (68) 野豌豆属 Vicia (30) 菟丝子属 Cuscuta (31)
悬钩子属 Rubus (33) 薯蓣属 Dioscorea (83) 番薯属 Ipomoea (37) 悬钩子属 Rubus (65) 菟丝子属 Cuscuta (21) 野豌豆属 Vicia (21)
胡椒属 Piper (28) 胡椒属 Piper (74) 吊灯花属 Ceropegia (30) 菝葜属 Smilax (53) 山黧豆属 Lathyrus (16) 山黧豆属 Lathyrus (15)
薯蓣属 Dioscorea (27) 崖爬藤属 Tetrastigma (66) 省藤属 Calamus (29) 薯蓣属 Dioscorea (39) - -
茉莉属 Jasminum (20) 茉莉属 Jasminum (61) 胡椒属 Piper (29) 胡椒属 Piper (32) - -
菝葜属 Smilax (20) 羊蹄甲属 Bauhinia (61) 铁线莲属 Clematis (25) 马兜铃属 Aristolochia (32) - -
崖爬藤属 Tetrastigma (17) 银背藤属 Argyreia (59) 茉莉属 Jasminum (24) 猕猴桃属 Actinidia (31) - -
银背藤属 Argyreia (16) 悬钩子属 Rubus (56) 薯蓣属 Dioscorea (22) 茉莉属 Jasminum (29) - -
球兰属 Hoya (15) 菝葜属 Smilax (53) 山柑属 Capparis (21) 崖爬藤属 Tetrastigma (29) - -
野豌豆属 Vicia (15) 球兰属 Hoya (48) 鹿藿属 Rhynchosia (20) 雪胆属 Hemsleya (29) - -
番薯属 Ipomoea (14) 番薯属 Ipomoea (44) 黄檀属 Dalbergia (21) 栝楼属 Trichosanthes (27) - -
菟丝子属 Cuscuta (14) 鱼藤属 Derris (41) 崖爬藤属 Tetrastigma (20) 党参属 Codonopsis (23) - -

Table 4

Distribution patterns of the 1,083 Himalayan climbing species in different part of the Himalayan region"

分布
Distribution
藤本总数 Climbers 克什米尔 Kashmir 喜马偕尔
Himachal
北阿肯德
Uttarakhand
尼泊尔段
Nepal
不丹段
Bhutan
东南段
SE. Himalaya
ABCD 286 (26.4) 43 (24.0) 64 (31.5) 127 (37.2) 191 (38.0) 228 (38.6) 219 (34.1)
ABC 227 (21.0) 38 (21.2) 45 (22.2) 82 (24.0) 102 (20.3) 134 (22.7) 118 (18.4)
ACD 127 (11.7) - 2 (1.0) 14 (4.1) 47 (9.4) 50 (8.5) 102 (15.9)
A 125 (11.5) 10 (5.6) 12 (5.9) 24 (7.0) 48 (9.6) 52 (8.8) 49 (7.6)
AC 100 (9.2) 3 (1.7) 3 (1.5) 4 (1.2) 13 (2.6) 41 (6.9) 72 (11.2)
AD 65 (6.0) 2 (1.1) 3 (1.5) 8 (2.3) 18 (3.6) 15 (2.5) 49 (7.6)
AB(CD)E 57 (5.3) 35 (19.6) 36 (17.7) 39 (11.4) 44 (8.8) 33 (5.6) 19 (3.0)
AB 43 (4.0) 10 (5.6) 13 (6.4) 21 (6.2) 17 (3.4) 22 (3.7) 5 (0.8)
AE 21 (1.9) 19 (10.6) 6 (3.0) 2 (0.6) 2 (0.4) 1 (0.2) -
ABE 13 (1.2) 11 (6.1) 9 (4.4) 7 (2.1) 4 (0.8) 1 (0.2) -
ABD 11 (1.0) 2 (1.1) 6 (3.0) 8 (2.3) 10 (2.0) 10 (1.7) 6 (0.9)
A(CD)E 7 (0.6) 5 (2.8) 4 (2.0) 5 (1.5) 6 (1.2) 4 (0.7) 3 (0.5)
AF 1 (0.1) 1 (0.6) - - - - -

Table 5

Climbing plant diversity in different part of the Himalayan region"

地区 District 科 Family 属 Genus 种 Species 草质藤本 Vines (%) 木质藤本 Lianas (%)
东南段 SE. Himalaya 69 239 642 178 (27.7) 464 (72.3)
不丹段 Bhutan 67 235 591 185 (31.3) 406 (68.7)
尼泊尔段 Nepal 62 195 502 176 (35.1) 326 (64.9)
北阿肯德段 Uttarakhand 54 157 341 125 (36.7) 216 (63.3)
喜马偕尔段 Himachal 35 105 203 98 (48.3) 105 (51.7)
克什米尔段 Kashmir 30 93 179 83 (46.4) 96 (53.6)
总计 Total 72 309 1,083 358 (33.1) 725 (66.9)

Table 6

Distribution of the 12 most climber-rich genera in the Himalayan region"

属名 Genus 藤本种数
Climbers
克什米尔段
Kashmir
喜马偕尔段
Himachal
北阿肯德段
Uttarakhand
尼泊尔段
Nepal
不丹段
Bhutan
东南段
SE. Himalaya
铁线莲属 Clematis 41 12 16 17 27 16 21
悬钩子属 Rubus 33 0 1 6 17 21 18
胡椒属 Piper 28 0 0 4 6 11 22
薯蓣属 Dioscorea 27 3 5 9 12 9 26
茉莉属 Jasminum 20 5 2 8 9 12 15
菝葜属 Smilax 20 2 4 10 13 12 15
崖爬藤属 Tetrastigma 17 1 1 6 11 13 11
银背藤属 Argyreia 16 2 1 4 8 10 6
球兰属 Hoya 15 2 1 3 4 12 10
野豌豆属 Vicia 15 10 11 7 6 4 4
菟丝子属 Cuscuta 14 10 3 4 3 3 5
番薯属 Ipomoea 14 3 3 7 9 3 2

Fig. 1

West distribution boundaries of the climber-containing genera in the Himalayas and the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Black columns denote the number of climber-containing genera disappeared in the west sections. Numbers in brackets denote reduced climber-containing genera per 100 km to the west in each section. Dashed lines denote the west distribution boundaries in the Himalayas and the Indo-Gangetic Plain. The width of the dashed line corresponds to the number of genera following this model."

1 Ahmedullah M (2000) Endemism in the Indian flora. In: Flora of India: Introductory Volume (Part II) (eds Singh NP, Singh DK, Hajra PK, Sharma BD), pp. 246-265. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
2 Airy-Shaw HK (1948) Studies in the Ericales, V. Further notes on Agapetes. Kew Bulletin, 3, 77-104.
3 Barik SK, Adhikari D, Chettri A, Singh PP (2015) Diversity of lianas in Eastern Himalayas and North-Eastern India. In: Biodiversity of Lianas (ed. Parthasarathy N), pp. 99-122. Springer, Switzerland.
4 Burnham RJ (2015) Climbing plants in the fossil record: Paleozoic to present. In: Ecology of Lianas (eds Schnitzer SA, Bongers F, Burnham RJ, Putz FE), pp. 205-220. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex.
5 Chang HT, Kong YC, But PH (1988) The origin and its affinity of the Nepalese flora. Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Sunyatseni, 27(2), 1-12. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[张宏达, 江润祥, 毕培曦 (1988) 尼泊尔植物区系的起源及其亲缘关系. 中山大学学报(自然科学版), 27(2), 1-12.]
6 Chen XG (1979) K-Ar Dating and division of the Himalayan movement in southern Xizang. Scientia Geologica Sinica, 14(1), 13-21. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[陈祥高 (1979) 西藏南部同位素地质年龄的测定与喜马拉雅运动的分期. 地质科学, 14(1), 13-21.]
7 Clinebell RR, Phillips O, Gentry AH, Stark N, Zuuring H (1995) Prediction of neotropical tree and liana species richness from soil and climatic data. Biodiversity and Conservation, 4, 56-90.
8 Fang RC, Hsu TZ, Huang SH, Gao BC (1991) Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae, Volume 57(3). Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[方瑞征, 徐廷志, 黄素华, 高宝莼 (1991) 中国植物志, 第57卷第3分册. 科学出版社, 北京]
9 Gentry A (1991) The distribution and evolution of climbing plants. In: The Biology of Vines (eds Putz FE, Mooney HA), pp. 3-52. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
10 Hajra PK, Sharma BD, Sanjappa M, Sastry ARK (1996) Flora of India: Introductory Volume (Part I). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
11 Hu L (2011) Distribution and diversity of climbing plants in temperate East Asia. Biodiversity Science, 19, 567-573. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[胡亮 (2011) 东亚温带藤本植物多样性及其格局. 生物多样性, 19, 567-573.]
12 Hu L, Li MG (2015) Diversity and distribution of climbing plants in Eurasia and North Africa. In: Biodiversity of Lianas (ed. Parthasarathy N), pp. 57-79. Springer, Switzerland.
13 Hu L, Li MG, Li Z (2010) The diversity of climbing plants in the spermatophyte flora of China. Biodiversity Science, 18, 198-207. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[胡亮, 李鸣光, 李贞 (2010) 中国种子植物区系中的藤本多样性. 生物多样性, 18, 198-207.]
14 Hu L, Li M, Li Z (2010) Geographical and environmental gradients of lianas and vines in China. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 19, 554-561.
15 Jagtap AP, Singh NP (1999) Fascicles of Flora of India, Fascicle 24. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
16 Kumar S (2001) Flora of Haryana (Materials). Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
17 Li H, Wu SK (1983) The regionalization of Xizang (Tibet) flora and the floristic structure of south Himalaya region. Acta Geographica Sinica, 38, 252-261. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[李恒, 武素功 (1983) 西藏植物区系区划和喜马拉雅南部植物地区的区系特征. 地理学报, 38, 252-261.]
18 Manchester SR, Chen ZD, Lu AM, Uemura K (2009) Eastern Asian endemic seed plant genera and their paleogeographic history throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Journal of Systematics and Evolution, 47, 1-42.
19 McCain CM, Grytnes JA(2010) Elevational gradients in species richness. In: Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester.
20 Mitra S, Mukherjee SKR (2007) Reassessment and diversity of endemic angiospermic genera of India. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany, 31, 163-176.
21 Miikeda O, Kita K, Handa T, Yukawa T (2006) Phylogenetic relationships of Clematis (Ranunculaceae) based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 152, 153-168.
22 Molina-Freaner F, Gamez RC, Tinoco-Ojanguren C, Cast- ellanos AE (2004) Vine species diversity across environmental gradients in northwestern Mexico. Biodiversity and Conservation, 13, 1853-1874.
23 Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, Fonseca GAB, Kent J (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature, 403, 853-858.
24 Pradheep K, Pandey A, Bhatt KC, Nayar ER (2014) Herpeto- spermum operculatum (Schizopeponeae, Cucurbitaceae), a new species from India, Myanmar and China. Blumea, 59, 1-5.
25 Rawal RS, Pangtey PS (1991) Distribution and phenology of climbers of Kumaun in central Himalaya, India. Vegetatio, 97, 77-87.
26 Schaefer H, Bartholomew B, Boufford DE (2012) Indofevillea jiroi (Cucurbitaceae), a new floral oil producing species from northeastern Myanmar. Harvard Papers in Botany, 17, 323-332.
27 Schaefer H, Renner SS (2011) Phylogenetic relationships in the order Cucurbitales and a new classification of the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae). Taxon, 60, 122-138.
28 Schnitzer SA (2005) A mechanistic explanation for global patterns of liana abundance and distribution. The American Naturalist, 166, 262-276.
29 Singh NP, Mudgal V, Khanna KK, Srivastava SC, Sahoo AK, Bandopadhyay S, Aziz N, Das M, Bhattacharya RP, Hajra PK (2001) Flora of Bihar: Analysis. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
30 Singh JS, Singh SP (1987) Forest vegetation of the Himalaya. Botanical Review, 53, 80-192.
31 Spehn EM, Rudmann-Maurer K, Körner C, Maselli D (2010) Mountain Biodiversity and Global Change. Global Mountain Biodiversity Assessment of Diversitas, Basel.
32 Srinivasan U, Tamma K, Ramakrishnan U (2014) Past climate and species ecology drive nested species richness patterns along an east-west axis in the Himalaya. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 23, 52-60.
33 Sun H (2002) Tethys retreat and Himalayas-Hengduanshan Mountains uplift and their significance on the origin and development of the Sino-Himalayan elements and alpine flora. Acta Botanica Yunnanica, 24, 273-288. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[孙航 (2002) 古地中海退却与喜马拉雅-横断山的隆起在中国喜马拉雅成分及高山植物区系的形成与发展上的意义. 云南植物研究, 24, 273-288.]
34 Surveswaran S, Sun M, Grimm GW, Liede-Schumann S (2014) On the systematic position of some Asian enigmatic genera of Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 174, 601-619
35 Tanaka N, Ohsawa M, Numata M (1983) Ecology of climbing plants in east Nepal. In: Ecological Studies in the Arun Valley, East Nepal and Mountaineering of Mt. Baruntse, 1981
(ed. Numata M), pp. 129-138. Chiba University, Chiba.
36 Thakur ML, Negi V (2015) Status and phylogenetic analyses of endemic birds of the Himalayan region. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 47, 417-426.
37 The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 161, 105-121.
38 Wu CY (1986) Flora Xizangica, Volume 3. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[吴征镒 (1986) 西藏植物志, 第3卷. 科学出版社, 北京]
39 Xie L, Wen J, Li LQ (2011) Phylogenetic analyses of Clematis (Ranunculaceae) based on sequences of nuclear ribosomal ITS and three plastid regions. Systematic Botany, 36, 907-921.
[1] Chunming Yuan,Yunfen Geng,Yong Chai,Jiabo Hao,Tao Wu. Response of lianas to edge effects in mid-montane moist evergreen broad- leaved forests in the Ailao Mountains, SW China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2016, 24(1): 40-47.
[2] ,Wenyao Liu, . Diversity and spatial distribution of lianas in a mid-montane moist evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Ailao Mountains, SW China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2015, 23(3): 332-340.
[3] Liang Hu. Distribution and diversity of climbing plants in temperate East Asia [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2011, 19(5): 567-573.
[4] Lei Li, Tong Liu, Bin Liu, Zhongquan Liu, Langming Si, Rong Zhang. Phenotypic variation and covariation among natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana in North Xinjiang [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2010, 18(5): 497-508.
[5] Liang Hu, Mingguang Li, Zhen Li. The diversity of climbing plants in the spermatophyte flora of China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2010, 18(2): 198-207.
[6] Haoyue Xue, Guixia Xu, Chunce Guo, Hongyan Shan, Hongzhi Kong. Comparative evolutionary analysis of MADS-box genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and A. lyrata [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2010, 18(2): 109-119.
[7] Ye Tao, Dan Wang, Tong Liu, Chengguo Jiang, Wei Zhai, Yongguan Li, Cheng Tang. Community characteristics of Arabidopsis thaliana natural populations in the northern Tianshan Mountains along with relevant environmental factors [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2009, 17(1): 51-61.
[8] Minglin Chen. Reproductive biology of Primula merrilliana, an endangered plant endemic to Anhui Province [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2007, 15(6): 599-607.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
[1] Xu Bing-sheng and Gu De-xing. Polymorphism in plant population[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1983, 1(01): 24 -25 .
[2] Zhou Chang. Advances in Research on Fusion of Plant Reproductive Cell[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1994, 11(04): 12 -16 .
[3] Ke Shan-qiang;Gui Yao-lin and Guo Zhong-chen. Studies on the Artificial Seeds of Plant[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1989, 6(04): 205 -210 .
[4] Liu Xiao-zhong and Wang Zong-li. Regulation of ADH Activity Induced by Hypoxic Condition in Corn Roots[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1996, 13(01): 48 -49 .
[5] Li Jia-ge and Xu Ji. Mechanism of Biological Nitrogen Fixation[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1997, 14(03): 1 -13 .
[6] XU Li;ZHENG Wen-Zhu;ZUO Zheng-Hong;ZHOU Han-Tao and XU Yu-De. Progress in Molecular Biological Studies of a-Tublin in Maize(Zea mays)[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1999, 16(05): 488 -494 .
[7] ZHU Xin-Guang and ZHANG Qi-De. Advances in the Research of the Effects of NaCl on Photosynthesis[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1999, 16(04): 332 -338 .
[8] HE Feng WU Zhen-Bin. Application of Aquatic Plants in Sewage Treatment and Water Quality Improvement[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2003, 20(06): 641 -647 .
[9] . [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1994, 11(专辑): 80 .
[10] Meifang Dong;Nan Hu;Fude Shang. Megasporogenesis and Female Gametophyte Development of Thellungiella halophila[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2006, 23(6): 658 -664 .