The present paper reported the distribution and diversity of cultivable Bacillus-like species in soils from Wuyishan National Nature Reserve. In June 2012, 75 soil samples were collected from the peak, middle and base of the Huanggang Mountain, Tongmuguan, Guadun, and Dazhulan in the reserve. The Bacillus-like species were isolated by plating the series dilution after 80℃water bath heating the soil samples and then identified using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Results showed that 418 strains isolated from the soil samples belonged to 42 Bacillus-like species, which were grouped into eight genera containing Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Fictibacillus, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Psychrobacillu, Rummeliibacillus and Viridibacillus. Furthermore, Bacillus was the dominant genus, followed by the genera Paenibacillus and Lysinibacillus. The greatest number of Bacillus-like species was isolated from the soils in Dazhulan, while the fewest were found at the middle and base of Huanggang Mountain. The quantities of Bacillus-like species in soils collected from Guadun and Dazhulan were more than 3.6×106 cfu/g soil, but less than 4.9×105 cfu/g soil at the top and middle of Huanggang Mountain. Bacillus cereus, B. mycoides, B. thuringiensis, and Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus were isolated from all six sites, which were dominated by B. thuringiensis and L. xylanilyticus. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index and Pielou’s evenness index for Bacillus-like species isolated from Tongmuguan were higher than those at the other five sites, while the lowest Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Pielou’s evenness index and Simpson index values were found in the soils from Guadun. There was a significant correlation between the altitude and the quantity of B. mycoides and B. thuringiensis, with correlations of 0.852 and -0.834, respectively. Additionally, highly significant correlations were found between the altitude and the isolating frequency of B. cereus, B. mycoides and B. thuringiensis, with correlations of 0.960, 0.952 and -0.931, respectively. These results indicated the abundance and diversity of the Bacillus-like species community and bacteria species were extremely rich in Wuyishan Nature Reserve.