Biodiversity Science ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (4): 431-437.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.14082

Special Issue: National Park Special Feature

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Cross-boundary issues under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and Convention on Biodiversity

Min Wang, Zhe Liu*(), Xiangzhao Feng, Chunxiu Tian   

  1. Policy Research Center for Environment and Economy, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100029
  • Received:2014-04-16 Accepted:2014-06-14 Online:2014-07-24
  • Liu Zhe

Climate change and biodiversity loss are two of the most serious global environmental challenges faced by humans. As these challenges involve global public goods, it is crucially important that the global society should strive to make synergies between the two most influential United Nations (UN) conventions, which are the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and Convention on Biodiversity. This paper reviews the negotiation process under the two conventions, especially focusing on cross-boundary issues. By analyzing the focal concerns of main parties, this paper evaluates possible future scenarios on cross-boundary issues under the two conventions. For the UNFCCC, focal issues related to biodiversity are as follows: LULUCF (Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry); REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation); and the international mechanism for Loss and Damage. For the Biodiversity Convention, the major issues related to climate change are: Synergy; REDD; Geo-engineering and related issues. In the end, we propose the following strategies: (1) Integrate the forces of our negotiating team, and promote synergistic actions under two conventions; (2) Plan for negotiations about cross-boundary issues, and take the initiative in the negotiation process; (3) Provide data for risk assessment associated with loss and damage; and (4) Strengthen scientific research and international exchange on geo-engineering issues.

Key words: climate change, biodiversity, negotiations, synergetic effects

Table 1

The key issues and its negotiation process related to biodiversity under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)"

土地利用、土地利用变化和林业Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) 减少毁林和森林退化的碳排放
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD)
Loss and Damage
1998, COP4 首次出现LULUCF议题
Raised a new issue of LULUCF at the first time
- -
2000, COP6 明确了相关定义, 决定将植树造林和重新造林包括在清洁发展机制(Clean Development Mechanism, CDM)项目下
Defined some terms, took afforestation and reforestation carbon sink projects as a qualified CDM project
- -
2001, COP7 明确了适用于第一承诺期的LULUCF规则
Clarified LULUCF rules for the first commitment period
- -
2003, COP9 确认了第一个承诺期CDM下造林和再造林项目活动模式和程序
Confirmed activity patterns and procedures of afforestation and reforestation projects for the first commitment period
- -
2005, COP11
Advised to increase REDD issue in the Provisional Agenda
2007, COP13 - 由REDD扩展到REDD+(在REDD基础上增加了保护和可持续管理森林以增加森林碳汇部分), 有关政策方针和激励办法纳入“巴厘岛行动计划”
Broadened REDD to REDD+( “REDD+” goes beyond deforestation and forest degradation, and includes the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks), and related policies and incentive measures were included into Bali Action Plan
Required parties to consider methods and strategies of loss and damage
2008, COP14

Raised multi-window mechanism to address Loss and Damage from climate change impacts
2009, COP15
首次审议REDD+议题, 通过了“关于REDD+的方法学指导意见”
First review of REDD+ issue and adopted the methodological guidance for activities relating to REDD+

2010, COP16 明确了议定书二期减排中的核算活动类型及核算原则
Clarified the accounting activity type and rule in the second commitment period of Kyoto Protocol
Made agreements on the detailed scale, principle and financial support of REDD+ action
Decided to build the work programme on Loss and Damage
2011, COP17 明确了发达国家2012年后二期减排中必须强制和可自行选择纳入核算的活动类型
Confirmed the kind of activity that should be taken by developed countries in a mandate or selectively, in the second commitment period of Kyoto Protocol since 2012
Made agreements on policy incentive mechanism and technology of REDD+ action
Established the work programme on Loss and Damage
2012, COP18
Decided to execute the financing plan in 2013 based on REDD+ action effect
首次将“损失和损害”问题列入条款, 决定设立应对损失和损害的机构安排
Listed loss and damage on the provisions for the first time, created an institutional arrangement on Loss and Damage
2013, COP19
Decided to establish the Warsaw Framework for REDD+
Established the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage
[1] UNFCCC Secretariat (2011) Synthesis report on views and information on the thematic areas in the implementation of the work programme..
[2] Ma X (马欣), Li YE (李玉娥), He XJ (何霄嘉), Wang WT (王文涛), Liu S (刘硕), Gao QZ (高青竹) (2013) The progress on loss and damage negotiation for addressing climate change under the UNFCCC.Advances in Climate Change Research(气候变化研究进展), 9, 357-361. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[3] Tan LZ (谭灵芝), Wang GY (王国友) (2011) Research on funds allocation mechanism for the adaptation to climate change.West Forum(西部论坛), 21(3), 49-59. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[4] Wu J (吴军), Zhang CY (张称意), Xu HG (徐海根) (2011) Climate change issue in Convention on Biological Diversity: negotiations and focuses.Biodiversity Science(生物多样性), 19, 400-403. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[5] Xue M (雪明), Wu SH (武曙红), An LD (安丽丹), Xu JL (徐基良) (2013) The evolution and outlook of REDD-plus negotiation.Biodiversity Science(生物多样性), 21, 383-388. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[1] Xing Yuan, Wu Xiaoping, Ouyang Shan, Zhang Junqian, Xu Jing, Yin Senlu, Xie Zhicai. Assessment of macrobenthos biodiversity and potential human-induced stressors in the Ganjiang River system [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(6): 648-657.
[2] Zou Anlong, Ma Suhui, Ni Xiaofeng, Cai Qiong, Li Xiuping, Ji Chengjun. Response of understory plant diversity to nitrogen deposition in Quercus wutaishanica forests of Mt. Dongling, Beijing [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(6): 607-618.
[3] Liu Yan, Yang Yushuang. Importance of conservation priority areas for bryophyte biodiversity in Chongqing [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(6): 677-682.
[4] Gui Xujun, Lian Juyu, Zhang Ruyun, Li Yanpeng, Shen Hao, Ni Yunlong, Ye Wanhui. Vertical structure and its biodiversity in a subtropical evergreen broad- leaved forest at Dinghushan in Guangdong Province, China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(6): 619-629.
[5] Mu Jun, Wang Jiaojiao, Zhang Lei, Li Yunbo, Li Zhumei, Su Haijun. Field monitoring using infrared cameras and activity rhythm analysis on mammals and birds in Xishui National Nature Reserve, Guizhou, China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(6): 683-688.
[6] Zhang Xiaoling, Li Yichao, Wang Yunyun, Cai Hongyu, Zeng Hui, Wang Zhiheng. Influence of future climate change in suitable habitats of tea in different countries [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(6): 595-606.
[7] Shao Xinning, Song Dazhao, Huang Qiaowen, Li Sheng, Yao Meng. Fast surveys and molecular diet analysis of carnivores based on fecal DNA and metabarcoding [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(5): 543-556.
[8] Li Hanxi, Huang Xuena, Li Shiguo, Zhan Aibin. Environmental DNA (eDNA)-metabarcoding-based early monitoring and warning for invasive species in aquatic ecosystems [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(5): 491-504.
[9] Zhu Baijing, Xue Jingrong, Xia Rong, Jin Miaomiao, Wu You, Tian Shanyi, Chen Xiaoyun, Liu Manqiang, Hu Feng. Effect of soil nematode functional guilds on plant growth and aboveground herbivores [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(4): 409-418.
[10] Ma Yanjie, He Haopeng, Shen Wenjing, Liu Biao, Xue Kun. Effects of transgenic maize on arthropod diversity [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(4): 419-432.
[11] Zhao Yang,Wen Yuanyuan. Development of Convention on Biological Diversity’s Global Platform for Business & Biodiversity: Policy suggestion for China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(3): 339-346.
[12] Qian Haiyuan,Yu Jianping,Shen Xiaoli,Ding Ping,Li Sheng. Diversity and composition of birds in the Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(1): 76-80.
[13] WEN Xiao-Shi, CHEN Bin-Hang, ZHANG Shu-Bin, XU Kai, YE Xin-Yu, NI Wei-Jie, WANG Xiang-Ping. Relationships of radial growth with climate change in larch plantations of different stand ages and species [J]. Chin J Plant Ecol, 2019, 43(1): 27-36.
[14] Dai Yunchuan,Xue Yadong,Zhang Yunyi,Li Diqiang. Summary comments on assessment methods of ecosystem integrity for national parks [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(1): 104-113.
[15] Xueming Lei,Fangfang Shen,Xuechen Lei,Wenfei Liu,Honglang Duan,Houbao Fan,Jianping Wu. Assessing influence of simulated canopy nitrogen deposition and understory removal on soil microbial community structure in a Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2018, 26(9): 962-971.
Full text



[1] ZHANG Ling-Ling-, ZHANG Yu-, WANG Li-, WANG Yu-Hua. An Ethnobotanical Study of Traditional Edible Plants Used by Naxi People in Northwest Yunnan, China——A Case Study in Wenhai Village[J]. Plant Diversity, 2013, 35(4): 479 -486 .
[2] Shi Pei-li, Zhong Zhang-cheng, Li Xu-guang. A Study on the Biomass of Alder and Cypress Artificial Mixed Forest in Sichuan[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 1996, 20(6): 524 -533 .
[3] Yong Zeng, Chengyi Zhao, Jun Li, Yan Li, Guanghui Lv and Tong Liu. Effect of groundwater depth on riparian plant diversity along riverside-desert gradients in the Tarim River[J]. J Plant Ecol, 2019, 12(3): 564 -573 .
[4] SHEN Dong-Wei, LI Yuan-Yuan, CHEN Xiao-Yong. REVIEW OF CLONAL DIVERSITY AND ITS EFFECTS ON ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONING[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2007, 31(4): 552 -560 .
[5] ZHANG Xiao-Quan, Xu De-Ying. A Canopy Radiation Model for Even-aged Plantation II Application and Validation[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2002, 26(1): 83 -88 .
[6] Yin Guo,Yunquan Wang,Lei Chen,Xiangcheng Mi,Haibao Ren,Shengwen Chen,Jianhua Chen. Comparing tree seedling composition and distribution patterns under different sampling intensities in the 24 ha Gutianshan forest dynamics plot[J]. Biodiv Sci, 2016, 24(10): 1093 -1104 .
[7] . Advances in Research on Photosynthesis of Submerged Macrophytes[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2005, 22(增刊): 128 -138 .
[9] Dai Yun-ling and Xu Chun-hui. Advances in Research on Protein Components of Oxygen-evolving Complex[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1992, 9(03): 1 -16 .
[10] Deli Peng, Zhiqiang Zhang, Yang Niu, Yang Yang, Bo Song, Hang Sun, Zhimin Li. Advances in the studies of reproductive strategies of alpine plants[J]. Biodiv Sci, 2012, 20(3): 286 -299 .