Biodiversity Science ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (4): 431-437.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.14082

Special Issue: National Park Special Feature

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Cross-boundary issues under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and Convention on Biodiversity

Min Wang, Zhe Liu*(), Xiangzhao Feng, Chunxiu Tian   

  1. Policy Research Center for Environment and Economy, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100029
  • Received:2014-04-16 Accepted:2014-06-14 Online:2014-07-24
  • Liu Zhe E-mail:liu.zhe@prcee.org

Climate change and biodiversity loss are two of the most serious global environmental challenges faced by humans. As these challenges involve global public goods, it is crucially important that the global society should strive to make synergies between the two most influential United Nations (UN) conventions, which are the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and Convention on Biodiversity. This paper reviews the negotiation process under the two conventions, especially focusing on cross-boundary issues. By analyzing the focal concerns of main parties, this paper evaluates possible future scenarios on cross-boundary issues under the two conventions. For the UNFCCC, focal issues related to biodiversity are as follows: LULUCF (Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry); REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation); and the international mechanism for Loss and Damage. For the Biodiversity Convention, the major issues related to climate change are: Synergy; REDD; Geo-engineering and related issues. In the end, we propose the following strategies: (1) Integrate the forces of our negotiating team, and promote synergistic actions under two conventions; (2) Plan for negotiations about cross-boundary issues, and take the initiative in the negotiation process; (3) Provide data for risk assessment associated with loss and damage; and (4) Strengthen scientific research and international exchange on geo-engineering issues.

Key words: climate change, biodiversity, negotiations, synergetic effects

Table 1

The key issues and its negotiation process related to biodiversity under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)"

缔约方
大会
(COPs)
土地利用、土地利用变化和林业Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) 减少毁林和森林退化的碳排放
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD)
损失和损害
Loss and Damage
1998, COP4 首次出现LULUCF议题
Raised a new issue of LULUCF at the first time
- -
2000, COP6 明确了相关定义, 决定将植树造林和重新造林包括在清洁发展机制(Clean Development Mechanism, CDM)项目下
Defined some terms, took afforestation and reforestation carbon sink projects as a qualified CDM project
- -
2001, COP7 明确了适用于第一承诺期的LULUCF规则
Clarified LULUCF rules for the first commitment period
- -
2003, COP9 确认了第一个承诺期CDM下造林和再造林项目活动模式和程序
Confirmed activity patterns and procedures of afforestation and reforestation projects for the first commitment period
- -
2005, COP11
-
建议在临时议程中增加REDD议题
Advised to increase REDD issue in the Provisional Agenda
-
2007, COP13 - 由REDD扩展到REDD+(在REDD基础上增加了保护和可持续管理森林以增加森林碳汇部分), 有关政策方针和激励办法纳入“巴厘岛行动计划”
Broadened REDD to REDD+( “REDD+” goes beyond deforestation and forest degradation, and includes the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks), and related policies and incentive measures were included into Bali Action Plan
要求缔约方考虑损失和损害的方法与策略
Required parties to consider methods and strategies of loss and damage
2008, COP14
-

-
提出应对气候变化损失和损害的多窗口机制
Raised multi-window mechanism to address Loss and Damage from climate change impacts
2009, COP15
-
首次审议REDD+议题, 通过了“关于REDD+的方法学指导意见”
First review of REDD+ issue and adopted the methodological guidance for activities relating to REDD+

-
2010, COP16 明确了议定书二期减排中的核算活动类型及核算原则
Clarified the accounting activity type and rule in the second commitment period of Kyoto Protocol
在REDD+行动的具体范围、行动原则和资金支持方面达成共识
Made agreements on the detailed scale, principle and financial support of REDD+ action
决定建立损失和损害工作计划
Decided to build the work programme on Loss and Damage
2011, COP17 明确了发达国家2012年后二期减排中必须强制和可自行选择纳入核算的活动类型
Confirmed the kind of activity that should be taken by developed countries in a mandate or selectively, in the second commitment period of Kyoto Protocol since 2012
在REDD+行动的政策激励机制和技术方法上达成协议
Made agreements on policy incentive mechanism and technology of REDD+ action
确立了《损失和损害问题工作方案》
Established the work programme on Loss and Damage
2012, COP18
-
决定在2013年执行基于REDD+行动效果进行融资的工作方案
Decided to execute the financing plan in 2013 based on REDD+ action effect
首次将“损失和损害”问题列入条款, 决定设立应对损失和损害的机构安排
Listed loss and damage on the provisions for the first time, created an institutional arrangement on Loss and Damage
2013, COP19
-
决定建立“REDD+华沙框架”
Decided to establish the Warsaw Framework for REDD+
建立“华沙损失和损害国际机制”
Established the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage
[1] UNFCCC Secretariat (2011) Synthesis report on views and information on the thematic areas in the implementation of the work programme..
[2] Ma X (马欣), Li YE (李玉娥), He XJ (何霄嘉), Wang WT (王文涛), Liu S (刘硕), Gao QZ (高青竹) (2013) The progress on loss and damage negotiation for addressing climate change under the UNFCCC.Advances in Climate Change Research(气候变化研究进展), 9, 357-361. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[3] Tan LZ (谭灵芝), Wang GY (王国友) (2011) Research on funds allocation mechanism for the adaptation to climate change.West Forum(西部论坛), 21(3), 49-59. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[4] Wu J (吴军), Zhang CY (张称意), Xu HG (徐海根) (2011) Climate change issue in Convention on Biological Diversity: negotiations and focuses.Biodiversity Science(生物多样性), 19, 400-403. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[5] Xue M (雪明), Wu SH (武曙红), An LD (安丽丹), Xu JL (徐基良) (2013) The evolution and outlook of REDD-plus negotiation.Biodiversity Science(生物多样性), 21, 383-388. (in Chinese with English abstract)
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