Biodiversity Science ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (1): 62-70.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.09120

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Relationships between the diversity of animal communities and the lighting environment and content of heavy metals in soils in Guizhou Zhijin Cave

Chengxiang Xu1, 2, Zizhong Li1, *(), Daohong Li2   

  1. 1 Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025
    2 College of Life Sciences, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001
  • Received:2012-05-25 Accepted:2012-10-25 Online:2013-02-04
  • Li Zizhong E-mail:lizizhong38@163.com

We investigated the community diversity of cave animals in different light zones of the Guizhou Zhijin Cave in August, 2011. We used principal components analysis (PCA) to examine the relationships between animal community diversity and environment factors. We assessed the potential ecological risk degree of heavy metals in the cave based on the Hakanson potential ecological risk index. We identified 1,080 specimens, which belong to three phyla, five classes, 26 families and 41 species or groups of species, which could be divided into five communities. The highest community diversity, richness index, evenness index, and dominance index were light zone of exit (2.7996), light zone of entrance (4.5399), light zone of exit (0.9196) and weak-light zone of exit (0.1868), respectively. Index of similarity between light zone of entrance and light zone of exit (0.6248) was highest. The richness and dominance indices of the communities were low, but community diversity and richness tended to decrease based on the order of the light intensity (i.e., light zone>weak-light zone>dark zone). Dominant species included Hemiphaedusa pluviatilis and H. moellendorffiana. Organic matter of soil, content of CO2 in the air, cave humidity, cave temperature, and heavy metal contamination of soil were the dominant factors to affect animal community diversity in the cave. Although Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, As in soils were at ecologically low levels, Hg pollution was relatively high in the whole cave and at especially severe level of ecological risk (Eri=256.000) in the light zone of cave entrance. As far as the average potential ecological risk level (RI=192.714) of six heavy metals were concerned, the cave was contaminated at a certain degree with heavy metals.

Key words: diversity of animal communities, environmental factors, ecological risk appraisal, principal components analysis, Zhijin Cave

Table 1

Animal species (group) composition and relative individual numbers in Zhijin Cave, Guizhou Province"

种或类群
Species or group
入洞口有光带
Light zone
of entrance
出洞口有光带
Light zone of exit
入洞口弱光带
Weak-light zone of entrance
出洞口弱光带
Weak-light zone of exit
黑暗带
Dark zone
百分比
Percentage
(%)
环口螺科 Cyclophoridae
长羽兔唇螺 Lagochilus longipilus 9 6 4 3 2.0
褐带环口螺 Cyclophorus martensianus 6 4 2 1 1.2
钻头螺科 Subulinidae
柑卷轴螺 Tortaxis mandarinuse 15 1.4
条纹钻螺 Opeas striatissimum 13 7 5 2 2.5
烟管螺科 Clausiliidae
尖真管螺 Euphaedusa aculus 7 9 8 4 3 2.9
真管螺属未定种 Euphaedusa sp. 21 17 3.5
雨拟管螺 Hemiphaedusa pluviatilis 101 38 12.9
麦氏拟管螺 H. moellendorffiana 120 25 13.4
拟阿勇蛞蝓科 Ariophantidae
猛巨楯蛞蝓 Macrochlamys rejecta 14 15 11 9 5 5.0
树脂巨楯蛞蝓 M. resinacea 8 7 4 5 2 2.4
扁平巨楯蛞蝓 M. planula 3 0.3
巨楯蛞蝓属未定种 Macrochlamys sp. 11 33 4.1
虹蛹螺科 Pupilidae
喇叭螺属未定种 Boysidia sp. 13 8 1.9
坚齿螺科 Camaenidae
扁平毛蜗牛 Trichochloritis submissa 4 0.4
巴蜗牛科 Bradybaenidae
平顶巴蜗牛 Bradybaena strictotaenia 45 9 5.0
灰巴蜗牛 B. ravida 6 19 2.3
锥尖巴蜗牛 B. acustina 2 0.2
巴蜗牛属未定种 Bradybaena sp. 6 3 0.8
小婴石螺 Chalepotaxis infantilis 6 4 3 2 1.4
环肋螺属未定种 Plectotropis sp. 4 7 1.0
潮虫科 Oniscidae
粗糙鼠妇 Pocellio scaber 3 0.3
长踦盲蛛科 Phalangiidae 3 15 12 40 6.5
巨蟹蛛科 Heteropodidae
严特巨蟹蛛 Thelecticopis severa 2 0.2
球蛛科 Theridiidae
温室腴蛛 Parasteatoda tepidariorum 2 1 1 0.4
暗蛛科 Amaurobiidae
龙隙蛛属未定种 Draconarius sp. 1 2 2 0.5
平隙蛛属未定种 Platocoelotes sp. 2 1 0.3
栅蛛科 Hahniidae
栅蛛属未定种 Hahnia sp. 2 0.2
蟹蛛科 Thomisidae
波纹花蟹蛛 Xysticus croceus 3 1 7 1.0
蚰蜒科 Scutigelidae
大蚰蜒 Thereuopoda clunifera 1 0.1
长头地蜈蚣科 Mecistocephalidae
长头地蜈蚣属未定种 Mecistocephalus sp. 1 0.1
奇马陆科 Paradoxosomatidae
陇马陆属未定种 Kronopolites sp. 2 0.2
角囊马陆科 Cambalidae
角囊马陆属未定种 Podoglyiulus sp. 2 16 12 21 4.7
鳖蠊科 Corydiidae
中华真地鳖 Eupolyphaga sinensis 5 0.5
驼螽科 Rhaphidophoridae
裸灶螽亚属未定种 Diestrammena sp. 3 15 8 21 19 6.1
蚁蛉科 Myrmeleontidae
蚁蛉 Myrmeleon formicarius 22 13 3.2
步甲科 Carabidae
盲目步行虫属未定种 Sinaphaenops sp. 2 2 6 0.9
上野行步甲属未定种 Uenotrechus sp. 2 0.2
夜蛾科 Noctuidae
闪夜蛾属未定种 Sypna sp. 15 5 21 7 3 4.7
大蚊科 Tipulidae
大蚊属未定种 Tipula sp. 8 4 1.1
菊头蝠科 Rhinolophidae
小菊头蝠 Rhinolophus blythi 28 2.6
鼠科 Muridae
小泡巨鼠 Rattus edwardsi 18 1.7
种类总计 Total species 29 21 18 16 15
100.0
个体数量总计 Toatl individuals 477 263 107 113 120

Table 2

Diversity, richness, evenness and dominance indices of five animal communities in Zhijin Cave"

群落
Community
多样性指数(H')
Shannon-Wiener diversity index
丰富度指数(D)
Margalef richness index
均匀度指数(J')
Pielou evenness index
优势度指数(C)
Simpson dominance index
A 2.6009 4.5399 0.7724 0.1280
B 2.7996 3.5893 0.9196 0.0696
C 2.5193 3.6381 0.8716 0.1037
D 2.0978 3.1730 0.7566 0.1868
E 2.2061 2.9243 0.8146 0.1428

Table 3

Similarity index of five animal communities in Zhijin Cave"

群落
Community
A B C D
B 0.6248
C 0.1803 0.3308
D 0.1670 0.3155 0.6230
E 0.0962 0.1594 0.4054 0.4244

Table 4

Average value of environmental factors in each zone of Zhijin Cave"

光带 Light zone 温度
Temperature
(℃)
湿度
Humidity
(%)

Ca
(%)
有机质
Organic matter
(%)
氧气
O2
(%)
氮气
N2
(%)
二氧化碳
CO2
(%)
土壤重金属含量(mg/kg)
Heavy metal concentration in soil

Cu

Zn

Ni

Cr

Hg

As
入洞口有光带
Light zone of entrance
15 90 12.52 3.41 20.69 77.92 0.46 59.7 106 73.8 46.8 0.64 9.92
出洞口有光带
Light zone of exit
16 85 15.35 4.33 20.87 78.01 0.19 56.7 182 76.6 39.7 0.28 10.30
入洞口弱光带
Weak-light zone of entrance
12 92 20.73 4.31 20.70 77.96 0.41 76.2 174 76.5 30.5 0.49 5.81
出洞口弱光带
Weak-light zone of exit
16 85 14.70 2.24 20.85 77.99 0.22 75.2 398 83.7 29.8 0.37 9.10
黑暗带 Dark zone 12 90 12.38 2.19 20.69 77.84 0.54 53.4 231 83.4 43.9 0.20 8.73

Table 5

Loading scores, eigenvalue and contribution of principal component of environmental factors in Zhijin Cave"

环境因子
Environmental factors
主成分 Principal component
1 2 3 4
温度 Temperature 0.704 0.142 0.498 0.396
湿度 Humidity 0.807 -0.206 -0.353 -0.084
钙 Ca 0.531 0.743 0.156 0.190
有机质 Organic matter 0.502 0.083 0.753 -0.156
氧气 O2 -0.343 0.209 0.234 -0.262
氮气 N2 -0.237 0.303 0.085 0.228
二氧化碳 CO2 -0.635 -0.544 -0.523 0.202
铜 Cu 0.295 -0.857 0.014 -0.178
锌 Zn -0.497 0.468 -0.467 -0.312
镍 Ni -0.504 0.286 -0.696 0.379
铬 Cr -0.074 -0.965 0.071 0.208
汞 Hg 0.478 -0.011 0.463 0.226
砷 As -0.515 -0.545 0.369 -0.364
特征值 Eigenvalue 3.448 3.315 2.356 1.684
贡献率 Contribution (%) 26.5 25.5 18.1 13.0
累计贡献率
Accumulate
contribution (%)
26.5 52.0 70.1 83.1

Table 6

Potential ecological risk evaluation of heavy metals in soil in each zone of Zhijin Cave"

单项潜在生态风险指数(Eri)
Single potential ecological risk index (Eri)
综合潜在生态
风险指数
Synthetical potential ecological risk index (RI)

Cu

Zn

Ni

Cr

Hg

As
入洞口有光带 Light zone of entrance 11.615 1.286 10.95 1.081 256.000 7.459 288.391
出洞口有光带 Light zone of exit 11.031 2.209 11.365 0.917 112.000 7.744 145.266
入洞口弱光带 Weak-light zone of entrance 14.825 2.112 11.350 0.704 196.000 4.368 229.359
出洞口弱光带 Weak-light zone of exit 14.630 4.830 12.418 0.688 148.000 6.842 187.408
黑暗带 Dark zone 10.389 2.803 12.374 1.014 80.000 6.564 113.144
平均值 Average 12.498 2.648 11.691 0.881 158.400 6.595 192.714
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