Biodiversity Science ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (6): 709-714.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.06020

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Effects of different disturbance measures on spatial distribution patterns of understory plants in Phyllostachys edulis forests

Yanrong Fan1, Shuanglin Chen1, *(), Hua Lin2, Qingping Yang1, Yicong Hong2, Ziwu Guo1   

  1. 1 Research Institute of Subtropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Fuyang, Zhejiang 311400
    2 Forestry Bureau of Shaxian County, Shaxian, Fujian 365500
  • Received:2013-01-24 Accepted:2013-08-28 Online:2013-12-02
  • Chen Shuanglin E-mail:cslbamboo@126.com

Anthropogenic disturbance measures have effects on biological relationships, resource patterns and ecological processes of ecosystems, causing changes of species spatial distribution pattern. To reveal the effects of different disturbance measures on species composition and the distribution patterns of dominant species, we selected three Phyllostachys edulis forests that had been subject to different types of disturbance, i.e. without weeding for many years (Forestno), hilltop weeding (Foresthilltop), and herbicide weeding (Forestherbicide), and analyzed spatial distribution patterns of the understory plant species. A total of 74 species belonging to 58 genera and 47 families were recorded across forest types. The forestherbicide type contained the most abundant species, while in the forestno type importance values ??and coverage of dominant arbor and shrub species were highest, whereas importance values ??and coverage of dominant herb species were lowest. Cunninghamia lanceolata, the common dominant arbor species in all three types of forest, tended to show a clumped pattern in both the forestno and the forestherbicide types (though not significantly so), but was randomly distributed in the foresthilltop type. Rubus reflexus, the common dominant shrub species, clumped strongly in both the forestno and the foresthilltop types, but not significantly so in the forestherbicide type. Melastoma dodecandrum and Dicranopteris dichotoma, the common dominant herb species, were strongly clumped in all three forest types. The proportion of dominant species showing a uniform distribution was highest in the forestno type. We suggest that anthropogenic hilltop weeding measure can be used for understory vegetation interference and the sustainable management of bamboo.

Key words: Phyllostachys edulis, understory plants, anthropogenic disturbance, weeding, species composition, distribution pattern

Table 1

Distribution patterns of the understory plant species in three Phyllostachys edulis forests: (A) without weeding for many years, (B) hilltops weeding, and (C) herbicides weeding"

种名
Species
扩散系数
Dispersion index
(DI)
t 负二项分布
Negative binomial (K)
聚块性指数
Patchiness index (PAI)
格局类型
Pattern types
A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C
淡竹叶 Lophatherum gracile - 14.15 - - 27.90 - - 0.52 - - 2.91 - - CL -
地菍 Melastoma dodecandrum 69.28 107.39 86.29 144.84 225.69 180.88 1.12 0.33 0.52 1.90 4.04 2.92 CL CL CL
冬青 Ilex purpurea - 1.56 - - 1.18 - - 1.80 - - 1.56 - - CL -
短柱茶 Camellia brevistyla 0.67 - - -0.71 - - -1.20 - - 0.17 - - U - -
多花野牡丹 Melastoma polyanthum 46.16 9.30 - 95.81 17.60 - 0.75 0.58 - 2.33 2.73 - CL CL -
狗脊厥 Woodwardia japonica - 10.99 25.29 - 21.19 51.53 - 1.19 0.90 - 1.84 2.11 - CL CL
寒莓 Rubus buergeri 0.22 - 1.00 -1.65 - 0.001 -1.03 - - 0.03 - 1.00 U - R
柃木 Eurya japonica 1.44 - - 0.94 - - 1.13 - - 1.89 - - CL - -
Miscanthus sinensis 6.57 - - 11.82 - - 0.93 - - 2.07 - - CL - -
芒萁 Dicranopteris dichotoma 30.48 37.21 26.20 62.54 76.81 53.47 0.28 0.90 0.49 4.60 2.11 3.03 CL CL CL
木荷 Schima superba 1.26 - - 0.55 - - 4.63 - - 1.22 - - CL - -
杉木 Cunninghamia lanceolata 1.50 1.00 1.37 1.05 0.00 0.79 4.44 - 4.05 1.23 1.00 1.25 CL R CL
铁线莲 Clematis florida 1.33 1.28 - 0.71 0.59 - 8.40 5.76 - 1.12 1.17 - CL CL -
乌蕨 Stenoloma chusana - - 36.28 - - 74.84 - - 0.42 - - 3.37 - - CL
纤花耳草 Hedyotis tenellifloa - - 2.33 - - 2.83 - - 0.30 - - 4.33 - - CL
锈茅莓 Rubus reflexus 2.06 2.25 1.03 2.25 2.65 0.071 1.23 1.28 38.03 1.82 1.78 1.03 CL CL CL
盐肤木 Rhus chinensis 0.78 - 0.67 -0.47 - -0.71 -1.35 - -1.20 0.26 - 0.17 U - U

Appendix I

Species composition of the understory vegetation under Phyllostachys edulis forests with different disturbance measures"

种名
Species

Family

Genus
重要值
Importance value
密度
Density (ind/m2)
盖度
Coverage (%)
A B C A B C A B C
乔木 Arbor
赤楠 S. buxifolium 桃金娘科 Myrtaceae 蒲桃属 Syzygium 0.5±0.1 1.1±0.1 0.3±0.0 0.3±0.0 1.1±0.3 0.1±0.0 0.2±0.0 0.4±0.0 0.1±0.0
楤木 A. chinensis 五加科 Araliaceae 楤木属 Aralia - 0.3±0.0 0.5±0.1 - 0.1±0.0 0.1±0.0 - 0.3±0.0 0.9±0.3
粗毛榕 F. hirta 桑科 Moraceae 榕属 Ficus 0.3±0.0 0.5±0.1 0.9±0.2 0.1±0.0 0.1±0.0 0.2±0.1 0.4±0.1 0.6±0.1 1.4±0.3
短柱茶 C. brevistyla 山茶科 Theaceae 山茶属 Camellia 1.7±0.2 - - 0.4±0.0 - - 4.6±0.3 - -
大叶冬青 I. latifolia 冬青科 Aquifoliaceae 冬青属 Ilex - - 0.3±0.0 - - 0.1±0.0 - - 0.1±0.0
冬青 I. purpurea 冬青科 Aquifoliaceae 冬青属 Ilex 0.9±0.2 1.7±0.2 - 0.5±0.1 1.0±0.2 - 0.7±0.1 0.6±0.1 -
红楠 M. thunbergii 樟科 Lauraceae 润楠属 Machilus - 0.3±0.0 - - 0.1±0.0 - - 0.1±0.0 -
虎皮楠 D. oldhamii 交让木科 Daphniphyllaceae 交让木属 Dapniphyllum - 0.7±0.1 - - 0.3±0.0 - - 0.3±0.0 -
老鼠矢 S. stellaris 山矾科 Symplocaceae 山矾属 Symplocos 0.8±0.2 - - 0.7±0.2 - - 1.6±0.3 - -
椤木石楠 P. davidsoniae 蔷薇科 Rosaceae 石楠属 Photinia 0.3±0.0 - - 0.1±0.0 - - 0.4±0.0 - -
米槠 C. carlesii 壳斗科 Fagaceae 栲属 Castanopsis - 0.4±0.0 - - 0.1±0.0 - - 0.8±0.1 -
木荷 S. superba 山茶科 Theaceae 木荷属 Schima 3.7±0.3 0.9±0.2 0.6±0.1 1.2±0.2 0.3±0.0 0.2±0.0 12.7±0.6 0.2±0.0 0.3±0.0
漆树 T. verniciflua 漆树科 Anacardiaceae 漆树属 Toxicodendron 0.9±0.2 0.9±0.1 - 0.3±0.0 0.3±0.0 - 2.7±0.3 1.2±0.1 -
润楠M. pingii 樟科 Lauraceae 润楠属 Machilus - 0.7±0.1 0.3±0.0 - 0.2±0.0 0.1±0.0 - 0.9±0.1 0.3±0.0
山苍子 L. cubeba 樟科 Lauraceae 木姜子属 Litsea 1.0±0.3 0.4±0.0 - 0.2±0.0 0.1±0.0 - 3.3±0.3 0.4±0.0 -
山矾 S. caudata 山矾科 Symplocaceae 山矾属 Symplocos - - 0.8±0.1 - - 0.4±0.0 - - 0.6±0.1
山乌桕 S. discolor 大戟科 Euphorbiaceae 乌桕属 Sapium 0.2±0.0 0.3±0.0 - 0.1±0.0 0.1±0.0 - 0.1±0.0 0.1±0.0 -
杉木 C. lanceolata 杉科 Taxodiaceae 杉木属 Cunninghamia 3.9±0.5 1.2±0.2 1.9±0.3 2.2±0.4 0.5±0.1 1.5±0.2 10.6±1.9 0.1±0.0 0.4±0.0
酸枣 Z. jujuba var. spinosa 鼠李科 Rhamnaceae 枣属 Ziziphus - 0.4±0.0 0.9±0.1 - 0.1±0.0 0.3±0.0 - 0.4±0.0 0.5±0.1
香叶树 L. communis 樟科 Lauraceae 山胡椒属 Lindera 0.2±0.0 - - 0.1±0.0 - - 0.1±0.0 - -
盐肤木 R. chinensis 漆树科 Anacardiaceae 盐肤木属 Rhus 1.3±0.5 - 1.3±0.1 0.3±0.0 - 0.4±0.0 3.8±0.4 - 1.2±0.2
灌木 Shrub
草珊瑚 S. glabra 金粟兰科 Chloranthaceae 草珊瑚属 Sarcandra 1.5±0.2 - - 1.9±0.3 - - 3.9±0.2 - -
茶树 C. sinensis 山茶科 Theaceae 山茶属 Camellia - - 0.3±0.0 - - 0.1±0.1 - - 0.1±0.0
多花野牡丹M. polyanthum 野牡丹科 Melastomataceae 野牡丹属 Melastoma 12.2±1.0 5.5±0.7 1.8±0.2 34.0±5.0 4.8±0.3 1.2±0.3 20.6±0.9 14.4±1.6 2.5±0.4
多花勾儿茶 B. floribunda 鼠李科 Rhamnaceae 勾儿茶属 Berchemia - 0.4±0.0 - - 0.1±0.0 - - 0.3±0.0 -
杜鹃 R. simsii 杜鹃花科 Ericaceae 杜鹃花属 Rhododendron - 0.3±0.0 - - 0.1±0.0 - - 0.2±0.0 -
杜茎山 M. japonica 紫金牛科 Myrsinaceae 杜茎山属 Maesa 0.3±0.0 1.2±0.2 0.6±0.1 0.3±0.0 0.5±0.1 0.2±0.0 0.3±0.0 1.7±0.4 0.4±0.0
东方古柯 E.kunthianum 古柯科 Erythroxylaceae 古柯属 Erythroxylum - 1.6±0.2 0.9±0.1 - 0.5±0.1 1.1±0.3 - 1.8±0.2 1.5±0.2
瓜馥木 F. oldhamii 番荔枝科 Annonaceae 瓜馥木属 Fissistigma 0.4±0.0 - - 0.1±0.0 - - 1.2±0.2 - -
光叶菝葜 S. corbularia 百合科 Liliaceae 菝葜属 Smilax 1.0±0.2 1.7±0.2 0.3±0.0 0.4±0.0 0.7±0.1 0.1±0.0 1.4±0.3 1.0±0.2 0.1±0.0
过路惊B. quadrangularis 野牡丹科 Melastomataceae 野海棠属 Bredia - - 0.3±0.0 - - 0.1±0.0 - - 0.1±0.0
寒莓R. buergeri 蔷薇科 Rosaceae 悬钩子属 Rubus 2.3±0.4 1.3±0.2 4.6±0.2 0.8±0.3 0.1±0.0 0.5±0.1 2.8±0.4 1.2±0.2 5.9±0.4
尖叶山茶 C. cuspidata 山茶科 Theaceae 山茶属 Camellia - - 0.6±0.1 - - 1.2±0.2 - - 0.2±0.0
柃木 E. japonica 山茶科 Theaceae 柃木属 Eurya 2.9±0.4 - 0.4±0.0 0.5±0.1 - 0.2±0.0 12.4±0.5 - 0.3±0.0
毛冬青 I. pubescens 冬青科 Aquifoliaceae 冬青属 Ilex 0.2±0.0 1.0±0.2 - 0.1±0.0 0.2±0.0 - 0.1±0.0 2.1±0.3 -
木槿 H. syriacus 锦葵科 Malvaceae 木槿属 Hibiscus - - 0.3±0.0 - - 0.1±0.0 - - 0.1±0.0
南方荚蒾 V. fordiae 忍冬科 Caprifoliaceae 荚蒾属 Viburnum 1.0±0.2 - - 0.1±0.0 - - 3.6±0.6 - -
山血丹 A. punctata 紫金牛科 Myrsinaceae 紫金牛属 Ardisia - 0.3±0.0 - - 0.1±0.0 - - 0.1±0.0 -
台湾榕 F. formosana 桑科 Moraceae 榕属 Ficus - - 0.3±0.0 - - 0.1±0.0 - - 0.1±0.0
尾尖爬藤榕 F. sarmentosa 桑科 Moraceae 榕属 Ficus - 0.1±0.0 - - 1.2±0.3 - - 3.0±0.4 -
锈茅莓 R.reflexus 蔷薇科 Rosaceae 悬钩子属 Rubus 3.0±0.4 3.8±0.2 2.4±0.3 1.3±0.3 1.6±0.2 1.3±0.2 8.3±1.0 13.2±1.1 9.9±0.5
野牡丹 M. candidum 野牡丹科 Melastomataceae 野牡丹属 Melastoma - - 0.3±0.0 - - 0.1±0.0 - - 0.3±0.0
野苎麻 B. siamensis 荨麻科 Urticaceae 苎麻属 Boehmeria - - 1.0±0.1 - - 0.5±0.1 - - 0.7±0.1
圆锥绣球 H. paniculata 虎耳草科 Saxifragaceae 绣球属 Hydrangea - - 1.2±0.2 - - 0.5±0.1 - - 1.6±0.3
朱砂根 A. crenata 紫金牛科 Myrsinaceae 紫金牛属 Ardisia - 0.4±0.0 0.3±0.0 - 0.3±0.0 0.1±0.0 - 0.2±0.0 0.1±0.0
紫金牛 A. japonica 紫金牛科 Myrsinaceae 紫金牛属 Ardisia 0.3±0.0 0.3±0.0 0.3±0.0 0.1±0.0 0.1±0.0 0.1±0.0 0.2±0.0 0.2±0.0 0.1±0.0
草本 Herb
艾纳香 B. balsamifera 菊科 Asteraceae 艾纳香属 Blumea - 0.8±0.1 1.8±0.2 - 0.3±0.0 0.9±0.0 - 1.1±0.2 2.7±0.2
草莓 F. ananassa 蔷薇科 Rosaceae 草莓属 Fragaria - - 0.8±0.1 - - 0.5±0.1 - - 0.8±0.1
酢浆草 O. corniculata 酢浆草科 Oxalidaceae 酢浆草属 Oxalis - - 0.3±0.0 - - 0.1±0.1 - - 0.1±0.0
淡竹叶 L. gracile 禾本科 Poaceae 淡竹叶属 Lophatherum 2.5±0.3 5.4±0.8 2.8±0.3 2.6±0.3 7.0±1.1 2.9±0.3 2.8±0.4 5.8±0.9 4.8±0.4
地菍 M. dodecandrum 野牡丹科 Melastomataceae 野牡丹属 Melastoma 19.9±1.3 13.5±0.8 16.7±0.4 76.2±5.7 35.0±4.0 44.5±3.1 15.1±0.7 6.7±0.5 15.3±0.9
耳草 H. auricularia 茜草科 Rubiaceae 耳草属 Hedyotis - - 0.4±0.0 - - 0.4±0.0 - - 0.1±0.0
狗脊厥 W. japonica 乌毛蕨科 Blechnaceae 狗脊蕨属 Woodwardia 4.2±0.4 12.7±0.6 12.3±0.7 3.9±0.4 11.9±1.0 21.9±2.1 11.4±0.7 37.0±3.0 19.5±1.6
金毛耳草 H. chrysotricha 茜草科 Rubiaceae 耳草属 Hedyotis - 0.4±0.0 3.2±0.2 - 0.1±0.0 2.8±0.4 - 0.7±0.1 5.8±0.7
马唐 D. sanguinalis 禾本科 Poaceae 马唐属 Digitaria 2.0±0.2 0.8±0.1 - 2.9±0.4 0.5±0.2 - 1.1±0.2 0.4±0.0 -
毛堇菜 V. hirta 堇菜科 Violaceae 堇菜属 Viola 0.2±0.0 - 1.8±0.2 0.1±0.0 - 2.5±0.4 0.1±0.0 - 2.2±0.3
M. sinensis 禾本科 Poaceae 芒属 Miscanthus 5.1±0.4 - 0.5±0.1 5.2±0.7 - 0.3±0.0 13.9±0.5 - 0.6±0.1
芒萁 D. dichotoma 里白科 Gleicheniaceae 芒萁属 Dicranopteris 4.9±0.6 21.4±1.6 6.3±0.2 8.2±0.7 32.7±2.8 12.4±0.7 14.1±0.5 49.3±5.0 6.7±0.3
日本蛇根草 O. japonica 茜草科 Rubiaceae 蛇根草属 Ophiorrhiza 3.6±0.6 1.6±0.2 0.4±0.0 1.9±0.3 0.6±0.1 0.2±0.0 11.5±0.3 1.7±0.2 0.5±0.1
石松 L. japonicum 石松科 Lycopodiaceae 石松属 Lycopodium - - 0.3±0.0 - - 0.1±0.0 - - 0.1±0.0
山梗菜 L. sessilifolia 桔梗科 Campanulaceae 山梗菜属 Lobelia - - 0.4±0.0 - - 0.1±0.0 - - 0.6±0.1
莎草 C. srotundus 莎草科 Cyperaceae 莎草属 Cyperu 4.8±0.4 1.6±0.2 3.3±0.3 5.1±0.4 0.4±0.0 2.8±0.5 12.0±1.0 2.2±0.3 4.2±0.6
扇叶铁线蕨 A.flabellulatum 铁线蕨科 Adiantaceae 铁线蕨属 Adiantum 2.3±0.3 4.9±0.3 - 5.1±0.4 4.0±0.4 - 2.6±0.3 9.7±0.8 -
乌蕨 S. chusana 鳞始蕨科 Lindsaeaceae 乌蕨属 Stenoloma 3.7±0.6 - 8.0±0.4 3.1±0.3 - 14.9±1.0 10.4±1.6 - 12.8±0.6
纤花耳草 H. tenellifloa 茜草科 Rubiaceae 耳草属 Hedyotis 0.7±0.1 0.7±0.1 15.3±2.0 0.3±0.0 0.4±0.0 19.5±2.5 1.3±0.3 0.3±0.0 36.2±3.7
羊耳蒜 L. japonica 兰科 Orchidaceae 羊耳蒜属 Liparis - 0.3±0.0 - - 0.1±0.0 - - 0.1±0.0 -
野山姜 A. japonica 姜科 Zingiberaceae 山姜属 Alpinia 0.3±0.0 - - 0.2±0.0 - - 0.2±0.0 - -
兖州卷柏 S. involvens 卷柏科 Selaginellaceae 卷柏属 Selaginella 2.0±0.2 - - 3.0±0.3 - - 3.2±0.4 - -
藤本 Vine
黑老虎 K. coccinea 木兰科 Magnoliaceae 五味子属 Kadsura 0.5±0.1 - - 0.1±0.0 - - 1.6±0.2 - -
络石 T. jasminoides 夹竹桃科 Apocynaceae 络石属 Trachelospermum - 0.7±0.1 0.3±0.0 - 0.1±0.0 0.2±0.0 - 2.0±0.3 0.1±0.0
毛花猕猴桃 A. eriantha 猕猴桃科 Actinidiaceae 猕猴桃属 Actinidia - - 0.3±0.0 - - 0.1±0.0 - - 0.1±0.0
三叶木通 A. trifoliata 木通科 Lardizabalaceae 木通属 Akebia - - 0.3±0.0 - - 0.2±0.0 - - 0.1±0.0
铁线莲 C. florida 毛茛科 Ranunculaceae 铁线莲属 Clematis 6.6±0.4 5.2±0.2 0.3±0.0 2.8±0.4 1.6±0.3 0.1±0.0 23.1±1.3 15.0±2.0 0.1±0.0
五叶木通 A. quinata 木通科 Lardizabalaceae 木通属 Akebia - - 0.3±0.0 - - 0.1±0.0 - - 0.2±0.0
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