Biodiversity Science ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (10): 1051-1059.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018086

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Ecological functions of millipedes in the terrestrial ecosystem

Mengru Wang, Shenglei Fu, Haixiang Xu, Meina Wang, Leilei Shi*()   

  1. College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004
  • Received:2018-03-26 Accepted:2018-07-17 Online:2019-01-06
  • Shi Leilei E-mail:shileilei1985@163.com
  • About author:# Co-first authors

Millipedes (Diplopoda) are a highly diverse group of soil invertebrates and play vital roles in terrestrial ecosystems. Millipedes contribute to the cycling of carbon and nutrients through their feeding activities and gut processes that help decompose litter. However, the functions of millipedes have been poorly researched compared to other groups of soil animals such as earthworms. Here, we briefly summarize the ecological functions of millipedes: Millipedes can fragment, consume and transform litter to accelerate its decomposition. Millipedes prefer large amounts of semi-decomposed litter and the efficiency of millipedes in assimilating litter can vary with litter source, temperature and microbial biomass in the litter. Millipedes can regulate the cycling of soil carbon and other key nutrients through feeding and excretion activities. Nitrogen enters to the soil when litter is fragmented by millipedes, but there are different views on how millipedes affect the soil carbon cycle. Millipede faeces decompose more rapidly than the pre-ingested litter. Such a transformation of litters to faeces would accelerate carbon cycling. However, other studies have suggested a relatively low decomposition rate of millipede faeces when compared with un-ingested litter, which could contribute to soil carbon sequestration and stabilization. In addition, the survival of millipedes affects soil phosphorus cycle. They can increase the content of available phosphorus in soil. Millipedes interact with other soil animals such as earthworms and also can regulate the abundances of soil microorganisms. Our review indicates that further studies are required to better understand and document the role of millipedes in ecosystem functioning.

Key words: millipede, soil fauna, terrestrial ecosystem, ecological functions

Fig. 1

Ecological functions of millipedes"

Table 1

Assimilation efficiency of millipedes"


Order

Family

Genus

Species
生存地点
Locality
凋落物
Litters
同化效率
Assimilation efficiency (%)
参考文献
References
球马陆目
Glomerida
Glomeridae Glomeris G. marginata 荷兰栎树林
Oak forests in the Netherlands
夏栎 Quercus robur 9%
球马陆目
Glomerida

Glomeridae Glomeris G. marginata 法国南部蒙彼利埃西北
25 km的冬青栎森林
Q. ilex forest of Puechabon, 25 km north-west of Montpellier (southern France)
冬青栎 Quercus ilex 6% David & Gillon, 2002
带马陆目
Polydesmida
Xystodesmidae Harpaphe H.haydeniana 加拿大马尔科姆·纳普研究森林——
温哥华不列颠哥伦比亚大
学校园附近的成熟混合林
Malcolm Knapp Research
Forest, near the University
of British Columbia campus
in Vancouver
北美乔柏 Thuja plicata
西加云杉 Picea sitchensis
异叶铁杉
Tsuga heterophylla
花旗松
Pseudotsuga menziesii
10% Cárcamo et al, 2000
异蛩目
Spirostreptida
Spirostreptidae Orthoporus O. ornatus 美国德克萨斯州大弯国家公园
Big Bend National Park, Texas, USA
麻黄属 Ephedra
蜂蜜牧豆树
Prosopis glandulosa
20-37% Wooten & Crawford, 1975
山蛩目
Spirobolida
Pachybolidae Trigoniulus T. lumbricinus 古巴 Cuba 咖啡属 Coffea
木槿 Hibiscus
黍属 Panicum
55% Pobozsny et al, 1992
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