Biodiversity Science ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (2): 202-209.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017305

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

From nature reserve to national park system pilot: Changes of environmental coverage in the Three-River-Source National Park and implications for amphibian and reptile conservation

Huijie Qiao1, Xiaoyi Wang2, Wei Wang3, Zhenhua Luo4, Ke Tang2, Yan Huang2, 5, Shengnan Yang2, 5, Weiwei Cao6, Xinquan Zhao2, 7, Jianping Jiang2, Junhua Hu2, *   

  1. 1 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    2 Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041
    3 Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
    4 School of Life Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079
    5 School of Life Sciences, China West Normal University, Nanchong, Sichuan 637009
    6 College of Control Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027
    7 Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008
  • Received:2017-11-14 Accepted:2018-02-14 Online:2018-05-05
  • Hu Junhua
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

The Three-River-Source (TRS) region, which harbors an evolutionarily unique and impressively large portion of plateau biodiversity, is an important national ecological security shelter zone. Acting as the first system pilot in China, the TRS National Park will be turned into both the exhibition of nature conservation and a heritage area of ecological culture on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. To better contribute to the construction of the TRS National Park, we compared the TRS National Park with the TRS and Kekexili Nature Reserves with respect to elevation, annual mean temperature and annual precipitation. By combining the environmental conditions of the occurrences of four species of amphibians and reptiles (i.e., Rana kukunoris, Nanorana pleskei, Scutiger boulengeri, and Phrynocephalus vlangalii) both inside and outside the national park, we explored potential opportunities and challenges for the conservation of poor-dispersal-ability species (including amphibians and reptiles) during construction of the TRS National Park. While the national park and the nature reserves had large overlap in geographical space, the environmental conditions were different between them. The preferred environmental conditions of the four species were mostly not included in the TRS National Park, but were included in the nature reserves. Given the unique geographical location of the TRS region and its sensitivity to climate change, the effective protection of amphibians and reptiles in this region will not only contribute to maintaining genetic diversity of species and the integrality of regional ecosystems, but also will help to achieve the goal of the TRS National Park and assist with the construction of ecological civilization. Thus, within the TRS National Park, to strengthen basic biological research, it is important to conduct long-term monitoring studies of population dynamics and community structure. Based on this, the potential effects of environmental changes on the distribution, genetic diversity, behavior, morphological traits, population dynamics and community of amphibians and reptiles could be understood, with the aim of achieving their sustainable survival within the TRS National Park in the face of global change.

Key words: national park, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, Three-River-Source, annual mean temperature, annual precipitation, climate change, long-term monitoring, biodiversity conservation

Fig. 1

The differences of geographic distributions between the Three-River-Source National Park and the nature reserves"

Fig. 2

The comparisons of the density in different levels in elevation, annual mean temperature and annual precipitation between the Three-River-Source National Park and the nature reserves"

Fig. 3

The comparisons between the overlapped and non-overlapped areas of the Three-River-Source National Park and the nature reserves in elevation, annual mean temperature and annual precipitation"

Fig. 4

The spatial distribution of areas (black) with the combined condition of elevation < 4,200 m, annual temperature > -3℃ and annual precipitation > 500 mm"

Fig. 5

The histograms and density curves of elevation, annual mean temperature and annual precipitation for the known occurrences of Rana kukunoris, Nanorana pleskei, Scutiger boulengeri, and Phrynocephalus vlangalii"

Table 1

The statistics of elevation, annual mean temperature and annual precipitation for the known occurrences of Rana kukunoris, Nanorana pleskei, Scutiger boulengeri, and Phrynocephalus vlangalii"

分布点数量 No. of occurrences 不属于国家公园环境空间的比例
Proportion outside the environmental space of National Park (%)
> Threshold
< Threshold
4,200 m 倭蛙 Nanorana pleskei 7 64 90.1
青海沙蜥 Phrynocephalus vlangalii 23 188 89.1
高原林蛙 Rana kukunoris 3 101 97.1
西藏齿突蟾 Scutiger boulengeri 36 64 64.0
Annual mean
-3℃ 倭蛙 Nanorana pleskei 68 3 95.8
青海沙蜥 Phrynocephalus vlangalii 192 19 91.0
高原林蛙 Rana kukunoris 104 0 100
西藏齿突蟾 Scutiger boulengeri 90 10 90.0
Annual precipitation
500 mm 倭蛙 Nanorana pleskei 69 2 97.2
青海沙蜥 Phrynocephalus vlangalii 29 182 13.7
高原林蛙 Rana kukunoris 84 20 80.8
西藏齿突蟾 Scutiger boulengeri 76 24 76.0
[1] Cai B, Li JT, Chen YY, Wang YZ (2016) Exploring the status and causes of China’s threatened reptiles through the red list assessment. Biodiversity Science, 24, 578-587. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[蔡波, 李家堂, 陈跃英, 王跃招 (2016) 通过红色名录评估探讨中国爬行动物受威胁现状及原因. 生物多样性, 24, 578-587.]
[2] Chen YH, Huang D, Yan SQ (2014) Discussions on public welfare, state dominance and scientificity of national park. Scientia Geographica Sinica, 34, 257-264. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[陈耀华, 黄丹, 颜思琦 (2014) 论国家公园的公益性、国家主导性和科学性. 地理科学, 34, 257-264.]
[3] Dudley N (2008) Guidelines for Applying Protected Area Management Categories. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
[4] Hijmans RJ, Cameron SE, Parra JL, Jones PG, Jarvis A (2005) Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. International Journal of Climatology, 25, 1965-1978.
[5] Hof C, Araujo MB, Jetz W, Rahbek C (2011) Additive threats from pathogens, climate and land-use change for global amphibian diversity. Nature, 480, 516-519.
[6] Jiang JP, Xie F, Zang CX, Cai L, Li C, Wang B, Li JT, Wang J, Hu JH, Wang Y, Liu JY (2016) Assessing the threat status of amphibians in China. Biodiversity Science, 24, 588-597. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[江建平, 谢锋, 臧春鑫, 蔡蕾, 李成, 王斌, 李家堂, 王杰, 胡军华, 王燕, 刘炯宇 (2016) 中国两栖动物受威胁现状评估. 生物多样性, 24, 588-597.]
[7] Li YM, Cohen JM, Rohr JR (2013) Review and synthesis of the effects of climate change on amphibians. Integrative Zoology, 8, 145-161.
[8] Liu MC, Li DQ, Wen YM, Luan XF (2005) The ecological function analysis and evaluation of ecosystem in Sanjiangyuan region. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 25, 1280-1286. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[刘敏超, 李迪强, 温琰茂, 栾晓峰 (2005) 三江源地区生态系统生态功能分析及其价值评估. 环境科学学报, 25, 1280-1286.]
[9] Ma KP (2014) Nature conservation is the first priority for a national park. Biodiversity Science, 22, 415-417. (in Chinese)
[马克平 (2014) 国家公园首先是自然保护基地. 生物多样性, 22, 415-417.]
[10] Ma KP (2017) A significant achievement in the development of national parks in China. Biodiversity Science, 25, 1031-1032. (in Chinese)
[马克平 (2017) 中国国家公园建设取得标志性进展. 生物多样性, 25, 1031-1032.]
[11] Tang XP (2014) On the system of national parks and the path of development in China. Biodiversity Science, 22, 427-430. (in Chinese)
[唐小平 (2014) 中国国家公园体制及发展思路探析. 生物多样性, 22, 427-430.]
[12] Wake DB (2012) Facing extinction in real time. Science, 335, 1052-1053.
[13] Wang Y (2017) Practice and innovation for overarching institution design of China’s national park. Biodiversity Science, 25, 1037-1039. (in Chinese)
[王毅 (2017) 中国国家公园顶层制度设计的实践与创新. 生物多样性, 25, 1037-1039.]
[14] Wei J, Guo YM, Sun L, Jiang T, Tian XP, Sun GD (2015) Evaluation of ecological environment vulnerability for Sanjiangyuan area. Chinese Journal of Ecology, 34, 1968-1975. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[韦晶, 郭亚敏, 孙林, 江涛, 田信鹏, 孙光德 (2015) 三江源地区生态环境脆弱性评价. 生态学杂志, 34, 1968-1975.]
[15] Xiang BH, Zeng YX (2017) Ecotourism construction and operating mechanism in the Sanjiangyuan National Park System Pilot Area, China. Resources Science, 39, 50-60. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[向宝惠, 曾瑜皙 (2017) 三江源国家公园体制试点区生态旅游系统构建与运行机制探讨. 资源科学, 39, 50-60.]
[16] Xie F, Lau MWN, Stuart SN, Chanson JS, Cox NA, Fischman DL (2007) Conservation needs of amphibians in China: A review. Science in China Series C: Life Sciences, 50, 265-276.
[17] Xinhua News Agency (2013) Decision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on a number of significant issues in the overall deepening of reform. Qianxian, 34(12), 9-22. (in Chinese)
[新华社 (2013) 中共中央关于全面深化改革若干重大问题的决定. 前线, 34(12), 9-22.]
[18] Zhu CQ (2014) Perspective on development of national park system in China. Biodiversity Science, 22, 418-420. (in Chinese)
[朱春全 (2014) 关于建立国家公园体制的思考. 生物多样性, 22, 418-420.]
[19] Zhu CQ (2017) The objectives and missions of establishing China’s national park system. Biodiversity Science, 25, 1047-1049. (in Chinese)
[朱春全 (2017) 国家公园体制建设的目标与任务. 生物多样性, 25, 1047-1049.]
[1] Chen Xing, Zhao Lianjun, Hu Xixi, Luo Chunping, Liang Chunping, Jiang Shiwei, Liang Lei, Zheng Weichao, Guan Tianpei. Impact of livestock terrain utilization patterns on wildlife: A case study of Wanglang National Nature Reserve [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(6): 630-637.
[2] Zhang Xiaoling, Li Yichao, Wang Yunyun, Cai Hongyu, Zeng Hui, Wang Zhiheng. Influence of future climate change in suitable habitats of tea in different countries [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(6): 595-606.
[3] Zhao Yang,Wen Yuanyuan. Development of Convention on Biological Diversity’s Global Platform for Business & Biodiversity: Policy suggestion for China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(3): 339-346.
[4] Wang Yi, Huang Baorong. Institutional reform for building China’s national park system: Review and prospects [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(2): 117-122.
[5] Tang Fanglin, Yan Yan, Liu Wenguo. Construction progress of national park system in China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(2): 123-127.
[6] Lü Zhongmei. Systematic legislation for nature conservation with national parks as the main body [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(2): 128-136.
[7] Zhang Chen,Guo Xin,Weng Sutong,Gao Jun,Fu Jing. Cross-border governance system construction of Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot by referring to the experience of French regional parks [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(1): 97-103.
[8] Dai Yunchuan,Xue Yadong,Zhang Yunyi,Li Diqiang. Summary comments on assessment methods of ecosystem integrity for national parks [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(1): 104-113.
[9] Wang Yufei,Su Hongqiao,Zhao Xinrui,Su Yang,Luo Min. Conservation easement-inspired adaptive management methods for natural protected areas: A case study on Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(1): 88-96.
[10] Li Shuang,Sun Xiaoping,Fang Yanjun,Zhang Yinlong,Cao Mingchang. Evaluation of the spatial characteristics of farmer livelihood assets in the Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(1): 64-75.
[11] Li Jie,Li Weiyue,Fu Jing,Gao Jun,Yang Lei,He Weihang. Using low-altitude UAV remote sensing to identify national park functional zoning boundary: A case study in Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(1): 42-50.
[12] Yu Jianping,Shen Yunyi,Song Xiaoyou,Chen Xiaonan,Li Sheng,Shen Xiaoli. Evaluating the effectiveness of functional zones for black muntjac (Muntiacus crinifrons) protection in Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot site [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(1): 5-12.
[13] Qian Haiyuan,Yu Jianping,Shen Xiaoli,Ding Ping,Li Sheng. Diversity and composition of birds in the Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(1): 76-80.
[14] WEN Xiao-Shi, CHEN Bin-Hang, ZHANG Shu-Bin, XU Kai, YE Xin-Yu, NI Wei-Jie, WANG Xiang-Ping. Relationships of radial growth with climate change in larch plantations of different stand ages and species [J]. Chin J Plant Ecol, 2019, 43(1): 27-36.
[15] Anrong Liu,Teng Yang,Wei Xu,Zijian Shangguan,Jinzhou Wang,Huiying Liu,Yu Shi,Haiyan Chu,Jin-Sheng He. Status, issues and prospects of belowground biodiversity on the Tibetan alpine grassland [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2018, 26(9): 972-987.
Full text



[1] WANG Hong-Li, ZHANG Xu-Cheng, and SONG Shang-You. Effects of mulching methods on soil water dynamics and corn yield of rain-fed cropland in the semiarid area of China[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2011, 35(8): 825 -833 .
[2] LIU Hong-Tao LI Bing ZHOU Ren-Gang. Calcium_calmodulin Signal Transduction Pathway and Environment Stimulation[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2001, 18(05): 554 -559 .
[3] CAO Deng-Chao, GAO Xiao-Peng, LI Lei, GUI Dong-Wei, ZENG Fan-Jiang, KUANG Wen-Nong, YIN Ming-Yuan, LI Yan-Yan, Aili PULATI. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus additions on nitrous oxide emissions from alpine grassland in the northern slope of Kunlun Mountains, China[J]. Chin J Plant Ecol, 2019, 43(2): 165 -173 .
[4] HE Shun-Zhi. Isometrum wanshanense, a new species of the Gesneriaceae from Guizhou, China[J]. J Syst Evol, 2006, 44(4): 454 -456 .
[5] Philippe GERRIENNE, Paul GONEZ. Early evolution of life cycles in embryophytes: A focus on the fossil evidence of gametophyte/sporophyte size and morphological complexity[J]. J Syst Evol, 2011, 49(1): 1 -16 .
[7] LIU Qiang, ZHANG Gui You, SHINOZAKI Kazuo. The Plant Mitogen-activated Protein (MAP) Kinase[J]. J Integr Plant Biol, 2000, 42(7): 661 -667 .
[8] LI Xiu-Lan WU Cheng DENG Xiao-Jian YANG Zhi-Rong. Plant Height Genes and Their Progress of Molecular Biology Research in Rice[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2003, 20(03): 264 -269 .
[9] . Changes of potential geographical distribution for Tsoongiodendron odorum since Last Glacial Maximum[J]. , , (): 0 .
[10] Guo Ji-xun, Ma Wen-ming, Zhang Gui-fu. Biological Approaches for improving Alkaline-Saline Grassland[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 1996, 20(5): 478 -484 .