Biodiversity Science ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (5): 481-489.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017006

• Reviews • Previous Article     Next Article

Parallel effects of environmental properties on genetic diversity and species diversity

Wumei Xu1, 2, Xiuqin Ci1, 2, Jie Li1, *()   

  1. 1 Plant Phylogenetics and Conservation Group, Center for Integrative Conservation, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2017-01-03 Accepted:2017-04-06 Online:2017-06-06
  • Li Jie E-mail:jieli@xtbg.ac.cn

Genetic diversity and species diversity are the two basic levels of biodiversity; recent studies have indicated the parallel effects of environment properties on these two levels of biodiversity. Here we introduce the species-genetic diversity correlation model regarding the parallel effects of environment properties on genetic diversity and species diversity. Based on the four basic processes in community ecology and population genetics (i.e. mutation and speciation, selection, drift, dispersal), we further discuss the theoretical foundations of the parallel effects of environment properties on these two levels of biodiversity. The studies conducted on these effects have shown significant importance in ecology and conservation biology, especially in the age of global change; however, few studies consider these two levels of biodiversity together but most consider only one in the biodiversity research so far. Therefore, we review the recent progress and outline the future directions in the study of the parallel effects of environmental properties on genetic diversity and species diversity. We hope this will benefit and promote the related studies in China.

Key words: environmental properties, genetic diversity, species diversity, parallel effects, global change, biodiversity conservation

Fig. 1

A theoretical model which depict the parallel effects of environmental properties on genetic diversity and species diversity (refer to Vellend & Geber, 2005)"

Table 1

The parallel effects of different ecological processes on genetic diversity and species diversity (refer to Vellend & Geber, 2005)"

生态过程 Ecological processes 遗传多样性 Genetic diversity 物种多样性 Species diversity
突变与物种形成 Mutation and speciation 新等位基因的产生 The creation of new alleles 新物种的形成 The creation of new species
漂变 Drift 种群内等位基因频率的随机变化
Random changes in the relative frequencies of alleles within a population
群落内物种相对多度的随机变化
Random changes in the relative abundance of species within a community
扩散 Dispersal 种群间等位基因的移动
Movement of alleles among populations
群落间物种的移动
Movement of species among communities
选择 Selection 仅对种群内某些等位基因有利的生态过程
Processes that favour particular alleles over others within a population
仅对群落内某些物种有利的生态过程
Processes that favour particular species over others within a community

Fig. 2

The predicted positive correlation between genetic diversity and species diversity according to the equilibrium theory (refer to Vellend, 2003). We assume that the island A, B, C, D have the same distance to the mainland while the area is D > A > B > C; the island B, E, F, G have the same area while the distances to the mainland are G > F > E > B. We also assume that there is no gene and species flow among the islands. Based on the predictions of the equilibrium theory, habitat area (Fig. 2a) and degree of isolation (Fig. 2b) are the drivers of the positive correlation between genetic diversity and species diversity."

Fig. 3

The predicted effects of resource availability and heterogeneity on genetic diversity within a population and species diversity within a community based on the Tilman (1982) model (refer to Vellend & Geber, 2005). ZNGI indicates the zero-net-growth-isoclines, all points on the isocline, the reproductive rate of a species equals its mortality. The intersection point between the ZNGIs indicates the potential stable coexistence among the species with different genotypes which depend on the status of resource distribution within the community. The species/genotypes listed in boxes indicate those that will coexist at equilibrium given different possible resource supply points. In this model, community 1 (C1) with a low resource heterogeneity and only genotype 2 in species 1 (S1, G2) can survive and exclude the others; while in community two (C2), the high resource heterogeneity allow all the two genotypes (G1 and G2) in each of two species (S1 and S2) coexisted within the community. The black arrows indicate the directions for the increased resource availability, with the resource availability increased, both genetic diversity within population and species diversity within community decreased in parallel eventually."

Fig. 4

The latitudinal patterns of genetic diversity and species diversity based on the predictions of evolutionary speed hypothesis (refer to Rohde, 1992; Gaston, 2000; Araujo & Costa-Pereira, 2013; Dowle et al, 2013)"

[1] Adams RI, Hadly EA (2013) Genetic diversity within vertebrate species is greater at lower latitudes. Evolutionary Ecology, 27, 133-143.
[2] Antonovics J (1976) The input from population genetics: “the new ecological genetics”. Systematic Botany, 1, 233-245.
[3] Araujo MS, Costa-Pereira R (2013) Latitudinal gradients in intraspecific ecological diversity. Biology Letters, 9, 20130778.
[4] Avolio ML, Smith MD (2013) Correlations between genetic and species diversity: effects of resource quantity and heterogeneity. Journal of Vegetation Science, 24, 1185-1194.
[5] Bellard C, Bertelsmeier C, Leadley P, Thuiller W, Courchamp F (2012) Impacts of climate change on the future of biodiversity. Ecology Letters, 15, 365-377.
[6] Bertin A, Gouin N, Baumel A, Gianoli E, Serratosa J, Osorio R, Manel S (2016) Genetic variation of loci potentially under selection confounds species-genetic diversity correlations in a fragmented habitat. Molecular Ecology, 26, 431-443.
[7] Biswas SR, Mallik AU (2010) Disturbance effects on species diversity and functional diversity in riparian and upland plant communities. Ecology, 91, 28-35.
[8] Chu CJ, Maestre FT, Xiao S, Weiner J, Wang YS, Duan ZH, Wang G (2008) Balance between facilitation and resource competition determines biomass-density relationships in plant populations. Ecology Letters, 11, 1189-1197.
[9] Clark CM, Tilman D (2008) Loss of plant species after chronic low-level nitrogen deposition to prairie grasslands. Nature, 451, 712-715.
[10] Cleary DF, Fauvelot C, Genner MJ, Menken SB, Mooers AO (2006) Parallel responses of species and genetic diversity to El Nino Southern Oscillation-induced environmental destruction. Ecology Letters, 9, 304-310.
[11] Connell JH (1978) Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs-high diversity of trees and corals is maintained only in a non-equilibrium state. Science, 199, 1302-1310.
[12] Dowle EJ, Morgan-Richards M, Trewick SA (2013) Molecular evolution and the latitudinal biodiversity gradient. Heredity, 110, 501-510.
[13] Ellegren H, Galtier N (2016) Determinants of genetic diversity. Nature Reviews Genetics, 17, 422-433.
[14] Eo SH, Wares JP, Carroll JP (2008) Population divergence in plant species reflects latitudinal biodiversity gradients. Biology Letters, 4, 382-384.
[15] Evanno G, Castella E, Antoine C, Paillat G, Goudet J (2009) Parallel changes in genetic diversity and species diversity following a natural disturbance. Molecular Ecology, 18, 1137-1144.
[16] Fahrig L (2003) Effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 34, 487-515.
[17] Fourtune L, Paz-Vinas I, Loot G, Prunier JG, Blanchet S (2016) Lessons from the fish: a multi-species analysis reveals common processes underlying similar species-genetic diversity correlations. Freshwater Biology, 61, 1830-1845.
[18] Frey D, Arrigo N, Granereau G, Sarr A, Felber F, Kozlowski G (2016) Parallel declines in species and genetic diversity driven by anthropogenic disturbance: a multispecies approach in a French Atlantic dune system. Evolutionary Applications, 9, 479-488.
[19] Gaston KJ (2000) Global patterns in biodiversity. Nature, 405, 220-227.
[20] Ge F (2008) Modern Ecology. Science Press, Beijing.
(in Chinese) [戈峰 (主编) (2008) 现代生态学. 科学出版社, 北京. ]
[21] Gram WK, Sork VL (2001) Association between environmental and genetic heterogeneity in forest tree populations. Ecology, 82, 2012-2021.
[22] Grime JP (1973) Competitive exclusion in herbaceous vegetation. Nature, 242, 344-347.
[23] Haddad NM, Brudvig LA, Clobert J, Davies KF, Gonzalez A, Holt RD, Lovejoy TE, Sexton JO, Austin MP, Collins CD, Cook WM, Damschen EI, Ewers RM, Foster BL, Jenkins CN, King AJ, Laurance WF, Levey DJ, Margules CR, Melbourne BA, Nicholls AO, Orrock JL, Song DX, Townshend JR (2015) Habitat fragmentation and its lasting impact on Earth’s ecosystems. Science Advances, 1, e1500052.
[24] Harpole WS, Tilman D (2007) Grassland species loss resulting from reduced niche dimension. Nature, 446, 791-793.
[25] Hautier Y, Niklaus PA, Hector A (2009) Competition for light causes plant biodiversity loss after eutrophication. Science, 324, 636-638.
[26] He T, Lamont BB, Krauss SL, Enright NJ, Miller BP (2008) Covariation between intraspecific genetic diversity and species diversity within a plant functional group. Journal of Ecology, 96, 956-961.
[27] Huang Y, Tran I, Agrawal AF (2016) Does genetic variation maintained by environmental heterogeneity facilitate adaptation to novel selection? The American Naturalist, 188, 27-37.
[28] Inza MV, Zelener N, Fornes L, Gallo LA (2012) Effect of latitudinal gradient and impact of logging on genetic diversity of Cedrela lilloi along the Argentine Yungas Rainforest. Ecology and Evolution, 2, 2722-2736.
[29] Jarzyna MA, Jetz W (2016) Detecting the multiple facets of biodiversity. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 31, 527-538.
[30] Lamy T, Jarne P, Laroche F, Pointier JP, Huth G, Segard A, David P (2013) Variation in habitat connectivity generates positive correlations between species and genetic diversity in a metacommunity. Molecular Ecology, 22, 4445-4456.
[31] Laroche F, Jarne P, Lamy T, David P, Massol F (2015) A neutral theory for interpreting correlations between species and genetic diversity in communities. The American Naturalist, 185, 59-69.
[32] Leonardi S, Piovani P, Scalfi M, Piotti A, Giannini R, Menozzi P (2012) Effect of habitat fragmentation on the genetic diversity and structure of peripheral populations of beech in central Italy. Journal of Heredity, 103, 408-417.
[33] Liu XJ, Zhang Y, Han WX, Tang AH, Shen JL, Cui ZL, Vitousek P, Erisman JW, Goulding K, Christie P, Fangmeier A, Zhang FS (2013) Enhanced nitrogen deposition over China. Nature, 494, 459-462.
[34] Lundholm JT (2009) Plant species diversity and environmental heterogeneity: spatial scale and competing hypotheses. Journal of Vegetation Science, 20, 377-391.
[35] MacArthur RH, Wilson EO (1963) An equilibrium theory of insular zoogeography. Evolution, 17, 373-387.
[36] Moritz C (2002) Strategies to protect biological diversity and the evolutionary processes that sustain it. Systematic Biology, 51, 238-254.
[37] Pauls SU, Nowak C, Balint M, Pfenninger M (2013) The impact of global climate change on genetic diversity within populations and species. Molecular Ecology, 22, 925-946.
[38] Peakall R, Smouse PE (2012) GenAlEx 65: genetic analysis in Excel—Population genetic software for teaching and research—an update. Bioinformatics, 28, 2537-2539.
[39] Pope LC, Riginos C, Ovenden J, Keyse J, Blomberg SP (2015) Population genetic diversity in the Australian “seascape”: a bioregion approach. PLoS ONE, 10, e0136275.
[40] Ravenscroft CH, Whitlock R, Fridley JD (2015) Rapid genetic divergence in response to 15 years of simulated climate change. Global Change Biology, 21, 4165-4176.
[41] Reed DH, Frankham R (2003) Correlation between fitness and genetic diversity. Conservation Biology, 17, 230-237.
[42] Ricklefs RE (1977) Environmental heterogeneity and plant species diversity: a hypothesis. The American Naturalist, 111, 376-381.
[43] Rohde K (1992) Latitudinal gradients in species diversity: the search for the primary cause. Oikos, 65, 514-527.
[44] Schrey AW, Grispo M, Awad M, Cook M, McCoy ED, Mushinsky H, Albayrak T, Bensch S, Burke T, Butler LK, Dor R, Fokidis HB, Jensen H, Imboma T, Kessler-Rios MM, Marzal A, Stewart IRK, Westerdahl H, Westneat DF, Zehtindjiev P, Martin LB (2011) Broad-scale latitudinal patterns of genetic diversity among native European and introduced house sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations. Molecular Ecology, 20, 1133-1143.
[45] Silvertown J, Biss PM, Freeland J (2009) Community genetics: resource addition has opposing effects on genetic and species diversity in a 150-year experiment. Ecology Letters, 12, 165-170.
[46] Stein A, Gerstner K, Kreft H (2014) Environmental heterogeneity as a universal driver of species richness across taxa, biomes and spatial scales. Ecology Letters, 17, 866-880.
[47] Stevens RD, Gavilanez MM, Tello JS, Ray DA (2012) Phylogenetic structure illuminates the mechanistic role of environmental heterogeneity in community organization. Journal of Animal Ecology, 81, 455-462.
[48] Struebig MJ, Kingston T, Petit EJ, Le Comber SC, Zubaid A, Mohd-Adnan A, Rossiter SJ (2011) Parallel declines in species and genetic diversity in tropical forest fragments. Ecology Letters, 14, 582-590.
[49] Taberlet P, Zimmermann NE, Englisch T, Tribsch A, Holderegger R, Alvarez N, Niklfeld H, Coldea G, Mirek Z, Moilanen A, Ahlmer W, Marsan PA, Bona E, Bovio M, Choler P, Cieslak E, Colli L, Cristea V, Dalmas JP, Frajman B, Garraud L, Gaudeul M, Gielly L, Gutermann W, Jogan N, Kagalo AA, Korbecka G, Kupfer P, Lequette B, Letz DR, Manel S, Mansion G, Marhold K, Martini F, Negrini R, Nino F, Paun O, Pellecchia M, Perico G, Piekos-Mirkowa H, Prosser F, Puscas M, Ronikier M, Scheuerer M, Schneeweiss GM, Schonswetter P, Schratt-Ehrendorfer L, Schupfer F, Selvaggi A, Steinmann K, Thiel-Egenter C, van Loo M, Winkler M, Wohlgemuth T, Wraber T, Gugerli F, IntraBioDiv Consortium, Vellend M (2012) Genetic diversity in widespread species is not congruent with species richness in alpine plant communities. Ecology Letters, 15, 1439-1448.
[50] Thom D, Seidl R (2015) Natural disturbance impacts on ecosystem services and biodiversity in temperate and boreal forests. Biological Reviews, 91, 760-781.
[51] Tilman D (1982) Resource Competition and Community Structure. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
[52] Vellend M (2003) Island biogeography of genes and species. The American Naturalist, 162, 358-365.
[53] Vellend M (2004) Parallel effects of land-use history on species diversity and genetic diversity of forest herbs. Ecology, 85, 3043-3055.
[54] Vellend M (2010) Conceptual synthesis in community ecology. Quarterly Review of Biology, 85, 183-206.
[55] Vellend M (2016) The Theory of Ecological Communities. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
[56] Vellend M, Geber MA (2005) Connections between species diversity and genetic diversity. Ecology Letters, 8, 767-781.
[57] Vik U, Jorgensen MH, Kauserud H, Nordal I, Brysting AK (2010) Microsatellite markers show decreasing diversity but unchanged level of clonality in Dryas octopetala (Rosaceae) with increasing latitude. American Journal of Botany, 97, 988-997.
[58] Wassen MJ, Venterink HO, Lapshina ED, Tanneberger F (2005) Endangered plants persist under phosphorus limitation. Nature, 437, 547-550.
[59] Wei X, Jiang M (2012) Contrasting relationships between species diversity and genetic diversity in natural and disturbed forest tree communities. New Phytologist, 193, 779-786.
[60] Whittaker RH (1972) Evolution and measurement of species diversity. Taxon, 21, 213-251.
[61] Willig MR, Kaufman DM, Stevens RD (2003) Latitudinal gradients of biodiversity: pattern, process, scale, and synthesis. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 34, 273-309.
[62] Xu WM, Song CY, Li QM (2015) Relationship between soil resource heterogeneity and tree diversity in Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rainforest, Southwest China. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 35, 7756-7762. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[徐武美, 宋彩云, 李巧明 (2015) 西双版纳热带季节雨林土壤养分空间异质性对乔木树种多样性的影响. 生态学报, 35, 7756-7762.]
[63] Xu WM, Liu L, He T, Cao M, Sha LQ, Hu YH, Li QM, Li J (2016a) Soil properties drive a negative correlation between species diversity and genetic diversity in a tropical seasonal rainforest. Scientific Reports, 6, 20652.
[64] Xu WM, Ci XQ, Song CY, He TH, Zhang WF, Li QM, Li J (2016b) Soil phosphorus heterogeneity promotes tree species diversity and phylogenetic clustering in a tropical seasonal rainforest. Ecology and Evolution, 6, 8719-8726.
[65] Yang ZY, Liu XQ, Zhou MH, Ai D, Wang G, Wang YS, Chu CJ, Lundholm JT (2015) The effect of environmental heterogeneity on species richness depends on community position along the environmental gradient. Scientific Reports, 5, 15723.
[66] Yeaman S, Jarvis A (2006) Regional heterogeneity and gene flow maintain variance in a quantitative trait within populations of lodgepole pine. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 273, 1587-1593.
[67] Yuan ZY, Jiao F, Li YH, Kallenbach RL (2016) Anthropogenic disturbances are key to maintaining the biodiversity of grasslands. Scientific Reports, 6, 22132.
[68] Zhang QG, Zhang DY, Ge JP, Zhao GL, Yu ZL (2014) Progress and hotspot in integrative biodiversity research — A review for “Shuangqing Forum, No. 88”. Chinese Bulletin of Life Sciences, 26, 97-99. (in Chinese)
[张全国, 张大勇, 葛剑平, 赵桂玲, 于振良 (2014) 生物多样性整合研究的进展及热点——第88期“双清论坛”综述. 生命科学, 26, 97-99.]
[69] Zhu BR, Zhang DY (2011) A process-based theoretical framework for community ecology. Biodiversity Science, 19, 389-399. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[朱璧如, 张大勇 (2011) 基于过程的群落生态学理论框架. 生物多样性, 19, 389-399.]
[1] Chao Yue JInfeng Chang. (2020) Developments and applications for terrestrial biosphere model . Chin J Plant Ecol, 44(生态技术与方法专辑): 0-0.
[2] Yang-Jian ZHANG Jun-Tao ZHU Ruo-Nan SHEN Li WANG. (2020) Research progress on the effects of grazing on grassland ecosystem . Chin J Plant Ecol, 44(全球变化与生态系统专辑): 0-0.
[3] Peng XING Biao Li Yixuan Han Qiujin Gu Hongxiu Wan. (2020) Freshwater ecosystems and their response to the global changes-Progress and prospect . Chin J Plant Ecol, 44(全球变化与生态系统专辑): 0-0.
[4] Dan Liu,Zhongling Guo,Xiaoyang Cui,Chunnan Fan. (2020) Comparison of five associations of Taxus cuspidata and their species diversity . Biodiv Sci, 28(3): 340-349.
[5] Jinyuan Su,Yu Yan,Chong Li,Dan Li,Fang K. Du. (2020) Informing conservation strategies with genetic diversity in Wild Plant with Extremely Small Populations: A review on gymnosperms . Biodiv Sci, 28(3): 376-384.
[6] Xia Li,Wanze Zhu,Shouqin Sun,Shumiao Shu,Zheliang Sheng,Jun Zhang,Ting Liu,Zhicai Zhang. (2020) Influence of habitat on the distribution pattern and diversity of plant community in dry and warm valleys of the middle reaches of the Dadu River, China . Biodiv Sci, 28(2): 117-127.
[7] Minxia Liu,Quandi Li,Xiaoxuan Jiang,Sujuan Xia,Xiaoning Nan,Yaya Zhang,Bowen Li. (2020) Contribution of rare species to species diversity and species abundance distribution pattern in the Gannan subalpine meadow . Biodiv Sci, 28(2): 107-116.
[8] Zhenyuan Liu,Xingliang Meng,Zhengfei Li,Junqian Zhang,Jing Xu,Senlu Yin,Zhicai Xie. (2020) Diversity assessment and protection strategies for the mollusk community in the southern Dongting Lake . Biodiv Sci, 28(2): 155-165.
[9] DING Wei,WANG Yu-Bing,XIANG Guan-Hai,CHI Yong-Gang,LU Shun-Bao,ZHENG Shu-Xia. (2020) Effects of Caragana microphylla encroachment on community structure and ecosystem function of a typical steppe . Chin J Plant Ecol, 44(1): 33-43.
[10] WANG Yu-Bing,SUN Yi-Han,DING Wei,ZHANG En-Tao,LI Wen-Huai,CHI Yong-Gang,ZHENG Shu-Xia. (2020) Effects and pathways of long-term nitrogen addition on plant diversity and primary productivity in a typical steppe . Chin J Plant Ecol, 44(1): 22-32.
[11] XU Jin-Shi,CHAI Yong-Fu,LIU Xiao,YUE Ming,GUO Yao-Xin,KANG Mu-Yi,LIU Quan-Ru,ZHENG Cheng-Yang,JI Cheng-Jun,YAN Ming,ZHANG Feng,GAO Xian-Ming,WANG Ren-Qing,SHI Fu-Chen,ZHANG Qin-Di,WANG Mao. (2019) Community assembly, diversity patterns and distributions of broad-leaved forests in North China . Chin J Plant Ecol, 43(9): 732-741.
[12] Zihong Chen,Yuanbing Wang,Yongdong Dai,Kai Chen,Ling Xu,Qingcheng He. (2019) Species diversity and seasonal fluctuation of entomogenous fungi of Ascomycota in Taibaoshan Forest Park in western Yunnan . Biodiv Sci, 27(9): 993-1001.
[13] Yibo Tan,Wenhui Shen,Zi Fu,Wei Zheng,Zhiyang Ou,Zhangqiang Tan,Yuhua Peng,Shilong Pang,Qinfei He,Xiaorong Huang,Feng He. (2019) Effect of environmental factors on understory species diversity in Southwest Guangxi Excentrodendron tonkinense forests . Biodiv Sci, 27(9): 970-983.
[14] FANG Wen-Jing,CAI Qiong,ZHU Jiang-Ling,JI Cheng-Jun,YUE Ming,GUO Wei-Hua,ZHANG Feng,GAO Xian-Ming,TANG Zhi-Yao,FANG Jing-Yun. (2019) Distribution, community structures and species diversity of larch forests in North China . Chin J Plant Ecol, 43(9): 742-752.
[15] TANG Li-Li,YANG Tong,LIU Hong-Yan,KANG Mu-Yi,WANG Ren-Qing,ZHANG Feng,GAO Xian-Ming,YUE Ming,ZHANG Mei,ZHENG Pu-Fan,SHI Fu-Chen. (2019) Distribution and species diversity patterns of Vitex negundo var. heterophylla shrublands in North China . Chin J Plant Ecol, 43(9): 825-833.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed