Biodiversity Science ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (5): 481-489.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017006

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Parallel effects of environmental properties on genetic diversity and species diversity

Wumei Xu1, 2, Xiuqin Ci1, 2, Jie Li1, *()   

  1. 1 Plant Phylogenetics and Conservation Group, Center for Integrative Conservation, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2017-01-03 Accepted:2017-04-06 Online:2017-06-06
  • Li Jie E-mail:jieli@xtbg.ac.cn

Genetic diversity and species diversity are the two basic levels of biodiversity; recent studies have indicated the parallel effects of environment properties on these two levels of biodiversity. Here we introduce the species-genetic diversity correlation model regarding the parallel effects of environment properties on genetic diversity and species diversity. Based on the four basic processes in community ecology and population genetics (i.e. mutation and speciation, selection, drift, dispersal), we further discuss the theoretical foundations of the parallel effects of environment properties on these two levels of biodiversity. The studies conducted on these effects have shown significant importance in ecology and conservation biology, especially in the age of global change; however, few studies consider these two levels of biodiversity together but most consider only one in the biodiversity research so far. Therefore, we review the recent progress and outline the future directions in the study of the parallel effects of environmental properties on genetic diversity and species diversity. We hope this will benefit and promote the related studies in China.

Key words: environmental properties, genetic diversity, species diversity, parallel effects, global change, biodiversity conservation

Fig. 1

A theoretical model which depict the parallel effects of environmental properties on genetic diversity and species diversity (refer to Vellend & Geber, 2005)"

Table 1

The parallel effects of different ecological processes on genetic diversity and species diversity (refer to Vellend & Geber, 2005)"

生态过程 Ecological processes 遗传多样性 Genetic diversity 物种多样性 Species diversity
突变与物种形成 Mutation and speciation 新等位基因的产生 The creation of new alleles 新物种的形成 The creation of new species
漂变 Drift 种群内等位基因频率的随机变化
Random changes in the relative frequencies of alleles within a population
群落内物种相对多度的随机变化
Random changes in the relative abundance of species within a community
扩散 Dispersal 种群间等位基因的移动
Movement of alleles among populations
群落间物种的移动
Movement of species among communities
选择 Selection 仅对种群内某些等位基因有利的生态过程
Processes that favour particular alleles over others within a population
仅对群落内某些物种有利的生态过程
Processes that favour particular species over others within a community

Fig. 2

The predicted positive correlation between genetic diversity and species diversity according to the equilibrium theory (refer to Vellend, 2003). We assume that the island A, B, C, D have the same distance to the mainland while the area is D > A > B > C; the island B, E, F, G have the same area while the distances to the mainland are G > F > E > B. We also assume that there is no gene and species flow among the islands. Based on the predictions of the equilibrium theory, habitat area (Fig. 2a) and degree of isolation (Fig. 2b) are the drivers of the positive correlation between genetic diversity and species diversity."

Fig. 3

The predicted effects of resource availability and heterogeneity on genetic diversity within a population and species diversity within a community based on the Tilman (1982) model (refer to Vellend & Geber, 2005). ZNGI indicates the zero-net-growth-isoclines, all points on the isocline, the reproductive rate of a species equals its mortality. The intersection point between the ZNGIs indicates the potential stable coexistence among the species with different genotypes which depend on the status of resource distribution within the community. The species/genotypes listed in boxes indicate those that will coexist at equilibrium given different possible resource supply points. In this model, community 1 (C1) with a low resource heterogeneity and only genotype 2 in species 1 (S1, G2) can survive and exclude the others; while in community two (C2), the high resource heterogeneity allow all the two genotypes (G1 and G2) in each of two species (S1 and S2) coexisted within the community. The black arrows indicate the directions for the increased resource availability, with the resource availability increased, both genetic diversity within population and species diversity within community decreased in parallel eventually."

Fig. 4

The latitudinal patterns of genetic diversity and species diversity based on the predictions of evolutionary speed hypothesis (refer to Rohde, 1992; Gaston, 2000; Araujo & Costa-Pereira, 2013; Dowle et al, 2013)"

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