Biodiversity Science ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (4): 393-400.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016296

• Original Papers: Plant Diversity • Previous Article     Next Article

Characteristics and effects of sprouting on species diversity in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Gutianshan, East China

Duo Ye1, Ruirui Dong1, Xiangcheng Mi2, Wei Lu1, Zhenjie Zheng1, Mingjian Yu3, Jian Ni1, Jianhua Chen1, *()   

  1. 1 College of Chemistry and Life Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, Zhejiang 321004
    2 State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    3 College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058
  • Received:2016-10-12 Accepted:2017-03-30 Online:2017-04-20
  • Chen Jianhua

Sprouting, a life history strategy found in woody plant communities, enables woody plants to persist in situ through disturbance events. The ‘persistence niche’ of sprouting has important influences on species coexistence, community assembly, and ecosystem stability. However, the mechanism of the ‘persistence niche’ in maintaining species diversity is not well understood. Based on data collected in a 5 ha plot in a mid-subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Gutianshan National Natural Reserve of Zhejiang Province, China, we analyzed the characteristics of sprouting and their relationships with species diversity. Our results revealed that the sprouting species had a great proportion of 63.95% in richness and a high proportion of 38.53% in abundance, especially a higher abundance proportion of 59.51% of potential sprouting at the community level. Sprouting occurred in most taxa, and there was high ability of sprouting in Fagaceae, Ericaceae, Hamamelidaceae, and Theaceae. There were significant negative correlations between abundance proportion of sprouting species and the biodiversity index of the community, despite no relationships between richness proportion of sprouting species and biodiversity index. Therefore, the sprouters could retain their position in forests and reduce biodiversity of the forest community. This trade-off of sprouting may result in the maintenance of community stability.

Key words: sprouting, species composition, biodiversity, evergreen broad-leaved forest, persistence niche

Table 1

Sprouting characristics of 20 common species in the 5 ha Gutianshan plot"

Individuals of sprouting
Ability of sprouting
Life form
柳叶蜡梅 Chimonanthus salicifolius 蜡梅科 Calycanthaceae 3,233 2,339 0.64 ± 0.24 灌木 Shrub
毛花连蕊茶 Camellia fraterna 山茶科 Theaceae 2,573 723 0.25 ± 0.20 灌木 Shrub
马银花 Rhododendron ovatum 杜鹃花科 Ericaceae 1,423 562 0.29 ± 0.24 灌木 Shrub
格药柃 Eurya muricata 山茶科 Theaceae 1,172 231 0.13 ± 0.17 灌木 Shrub
甜槠 Castanopsis eyrei 壳斗科 Fagaceae 1,003 426 0.31 ± 0.29 乔木 Tree
青冈 Cyclobalanopsis glauca 壳斗科 Fagaceae 845 542 0.48 ± 0.38 乔木 Tree
檵木 Loropetalum chinense 金缕梅科 Hamamelidaceae 845 215 0.21 ± 0.24 灌木 Shrub
鹿角杜鹃 Rhododendron latoucheae 杜鹃花科 Ericaceae 839 385 0.30 ± 0.29 灌木 Shrub
栲树 Castanopsis fargesii 壳斗科 Fagaceae 838 329 0.30 ± 0.31 乔木 Tree
矩叶鼠刺 Itea oblonga 虎耳草科 Saxifragaceae 771 316 0.31 ± 0.30 灌木 Shrub
虎皮楠 Daphniphyllum oldhamii 交让木科 Daphniphyllaceae 699 77 0.05 ± 0.12 乔木 Tree
红楠 Machilus thunbergii 樟科 Lauraceae 614 126 0.18 ± 0.26 乔木 Tree
Neolitsea aurata var. chekiangensis
樟科 Lauraceae 557 112 0.15 ± 0.27 灌木 Shrub
石栎 Lithocarpus glaber 壳斗科 Fagaceae 530 341 0.46 ± 0.38 乔木 Tree
钩栲 Castanopsis tibetana 壳斗科 Fagaceae 466 156 0.28 ± 0.31 乔木 Tree
美丽马醉木 Pieris formosa 杜鹃花科 Ericaceae 447 301 0.52 ± 0.37 灌木 Shrub
腺蜡瓣花 Corylopsis glandulifera 金缕梅科 Hamamelidaceae 397 322 0.78 ± 0.27 灌木 Shrub
猴欢喜 Sloanea sinensis 杜英科 Elaeocarpaceae 394 20 0.04 ± 0.13 乔木 Tree
木荷 Schima superba 山茶科 Theaceae 330 67 0.11 ± 0.20 乔木 Tree
江南越橘 Vaccinium mandarinorum 杜鹃花科 Ericaceae 320 87 0.19 ± 0.29 灌木 Shrub

Fig. 1

Relationships between richness proportion of sprouting species and species diversity indices of community in the 5 ha Gutianshan plot"

Fig. 2

Relationships between abundance proportion of sprouting species and species diversity indices of community in the 5 ha Gutianshan plot"

1 Bellingham PJ, Sparrow AD (2000) Resprouting as a life history strategy in woody plant communities. Oikos, 89, 409-416.
2 Bellingham PJ, Sparrow AD (2009) Multi-stemmed trees in montane rain forests: their frequency and demography in relation to elevation, soil nutrients and disturbance. Journal of Ecology, 97, 472-483.
3 Bond WJ, Midgley JJ (2001) Ecology of sprouting in woody plants: the persistence niche. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 16, 45-51.
4 Caplat P, Anand M (2009) Effects of disturbance frequency, species traits and resprouting on directional succession in an individual-based model of forest dynamics. Journal of Ecology, 97, 1028-1036.
5 Chamberlin EA, Aarsen LW (1996) The cost of apical dominance in white pine (Pinus strobus L.): growth in multi- stemmed versus single-stemmed trees. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 123, 268-272.
6 Chen M, Cao M, Lin LX (2007) Research advances in regeneration of woody plants by sprouting. Chinese Journal of Ecology, 26, 1114-1118. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[陈沐, 曹敏, 林露湘 (2007) 木本植物萌生更新研究进展. 生态学杂志, 26, 1114-1118.]
7 Chen M, Fang H, Cao M (2008) Sprouting characteristics of sprouted woody plants in the mid-mountain humid evergreen broad-leaved forest on Ailao Mountain, Yunnan Province. Guihaia, 28, 627-632. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[陈沐, 房辉, 曹敏 (2008) 云南哀牢山中山湿性常绿阔叶林树种萌生特征研究. 广西植物, 28, 627-632.]
8 Chen XY, Song YC (1997) Influence of flood disturbance on the regeneration of Cyclobalanopsis glauca populations. Journal of Trpical and Subtropical Botany, 5, 53-58. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[陈小勇, 宋永昌 (1997) 洪水干扰对青冈种群更新的影响. 热带亚热带植物学报, 5, 53-58.]
9 Cirne P, Scarano FR (2001) Resprouting and growth dynamics after fire of the clonal shrub Andira legalis (Leguminosae) in a sandy coastal plain in south-eastern Brazil. Journal of Ecology, 89, 351-357.
10 Clarke PJ, Lawes MJ, Midgley JJ (2010) Resprouting as a key functional trait in woody plants—challenges to developing new organizing principles. New Phytologist, 188, 651-654.
11 Clarke PJ, Lawes MJ, Midgley JJ, Lamont BB, Ojeda F, Burrows GE, Enright NJ, Knox KJE (2013) Resprouting as a key functional trait: how buds, protection and resources drive persistence after fire. New Phytologist, 197, 19-35.
12 Condit R (1995) Research in large, long-term tropical forest plots. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 10, 18-22.
13 Del Tredici P (2001) Sprouting in temperate trees: a morphological and ecological review. Botanical Review, 67, 121-140.
14 Fujiki D, Kikuzawa K (2006) Stem turnover strategy of multiple-stemmed woody plants. Ecological Research, 21, 380-386.
15 He YT, Cao M, Tang Y, Li GC (2000) A preliminary study on sprouting of canopy trees in middle mountain moist evergreen broad-leaved forest of Ailao Mountain, Yunnan. Journal of Wuhan Botanical Research, 18, 523-527. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[何永涛, 曹敏, 唐勇, 李贵才 (2000) 云南省哀牢山中山湿性常绿阔叶林萌生现象的初步研究. 武汉植物学研究, 18, 523-527.]
16 Johnston RD, Lacey CJ (1983) Multi-stemmed trees in rainforest. Australian Journal of Botany, 31, 189-195.
17 Kammesheidt L (1998) The role of tree sprouts in the restoration of stand structure and species diversity in tropical moist forest after slash-and-burn agriculture in eastern Paraguay. Plant Ecology, 139, 155-165.
18 Kruger LM, Midgley JJ (2001) The influence of resprouting forest canopy species on richness in Southern Cape forests, South Africa. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 10, 567-572.
19 Lawes MJ, Clarke PJ (2011) Ecology of plant resprouting: populations to community responses in fire-prone ecosystems. Plant Ecology, 212, 1937-1943.
20 Lin LX, Cao M, Tang Y, Fu XH, Zhang JH (2002) Tree species diversity in abandoned fields of Xishuangbanna, SW China. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica, 26, 216-222. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[林露湘, 曹敏, 唐勇, 付先惠, 张建侯 (2002) 西双版纳刀耕火种弃耕地树种多样性比较研究. 植物生态学报, 26, 216-222.]
21 Liu CX, Jin Y, Yu JP, Chen SW, Tian L, Wang YQ, Chen JH (2014) Characteristics of root sprouting trees of Castanopsis eyrei and Schima superba communities in 1 hm2 forest plot at Chawan, Gutianshan National Nature Reserve. Journal of Zhejiang University (Science Edition), 41, 573-582, 592. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[刘常幸, 金毅, 余建平, 陈声文, 田磊, 王云泉, 陈建华 (2014) 古田山茶湾样地甜槠-木荷林根萌特征分析. 浙江大学学报(理学版), 41, 573-582, 592.]
22 Liu HB, Wang QG, Lu JM, Xu YZ, Lu ZJ, Qiao XJ, Bao DC, Guo YL, Meng HJ, Jiang MX (2014) Root-sprouting ability in an evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest. Chinese Science Bulletin (Chinese Version), 59, 3491-3499. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[刘海波, 王庆刚, 路俊盟, 徐耀粘, 卢志军, 乔秀娟, 鲍大川, 郭屹立, 孟红杰, 江明喜 (2014) 八大公山常绿落叶阔叶混交林根萌能力. 科学通报, 59, 3491-3499.]
23 Lloret F, Vilà M (1997) Clearing of vegetation in Mediterranean garrigue: response after a wildfire. Forest Ecology and Management, 93, 227-234.
24 Luo ZR, Chen DL, Yang H, Su LL, Ding BY (2015) Sprouting propagation characteristics of Cleyera pachyphylla in the Baishanzu subtropical evergreen forest. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 35, 5385-5392. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[骆争荣, 陈德良, 杨辉, 苏立蕾, 丁炳扬 (2015) 百山祖常绿阔叶林厚叶红淡比的萌蘖繁殖特性. 生态学报, 35, 5385-5392.]
25 Meng LB, Bao WK, Pang XY, Sun F (2006) Effects of ramets adjustment on Quercus liaotungensis growth and seed generation. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 17, 1771-1776. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[孟令彬, 包维楷, 庞学勇, 孙凡 (2006) 萌蘖调控对辽东栎留存萌生株生长与结实的影响. 应用生态学报, 17, 1771-1776.]
26 Moreira B, Tormo J, Pausas JG (2012) To resprout or not to resprout: factors driving intraspecific variability in resprouting. Oikos, 121, 1577-1584.
27 Oksanen J, Blanchet FG, Kindt R, Legendre P, Minchin PR, O’Hara RB, Simpson GL, Solymos P, Stevens MHH, Wagner H (2014) Vegan: Community Ecology Package.
28 Pausas JG, Pratt RB, Keeley JE, Jacobsen AL, Ramirez AR, Vilagrosa A, Paula S, Kaneakua-Pia IN, Davis SD (2016) Towards understanding resprouting at the global scale. New Phytologist, 209, 945-954.
29 Phillips OL, Hall P, Gentry AH, Sawyer SA, Vasquez R (1994) Dynamics and species richness of tropical rain forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 91, 2805-2809.
30 R Development Core Team (2014) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing.
31 Song YC, Wang XH, Yan ER (2013) Evergreen Broad-leaved Forests in China: Classification, Ecology, Conservation. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[宋永昌, 王希华, 阎恩荣 (2013) 中国常绿阔叶林: 分类·生态·保育. 科学出版社, 北京.]
32 Tomlinson KW, Sterck FJ, Bongers F, da Silva DA, Barbosa ERM, Ward D, Bakker FT, van Kaauwen M, Prins HHT, de Bie S, van Langevelde F (2012) Biomass partitioning and root morphology of savanna trees across a water gradient. Journal of Ecology, 100, 1113-1121.
33 Torres RC, Giorgis MA, Trillo C, Volkmann L, Demaio P, Heredia J, Renison D (2014) Post-fire recovery occurs overwhelmingly by resprouting in the Chaco Serrano forest of Central Argentina. Austral Ecology, 39, 346-354.
34 Vesk PA, Westoby M (2004) Sprouting ability across diverse disturbances and vegetation types worldwide. Journal of Ecology, 92, 310-320.
35 Wang XH, Kent M, Fang XF (2007) Evergreen broad-leaved forest in eastern China: its ecology and conservation and the importance of resprouting in forest restoration. Forest Ecology and Management, 245, 76-87.
36 Wang XH, Yan X, Yan ER, Jin Y (2004) Primary study on sprout regeneration of several dominant species of evergreen broad-leaved forest after logging in Tiantong. Journal of Wuhan Botanical Research, 22, 52-57. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[王希华, 严晓, 闫恩荣, 金毅 (2004) 天童几种常绿阔叶林优势种在砍伐后萌枝更新的初步研究. 武汉植物学研究, 22, 52-57.]
37 Wang YH, Mi XC, Chen SW, Li MH, Yu MJ (2011) Regeneration dynamics of major tree species during 2002-2007 in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve in East China. Biodiversity Science, 19, 178-189. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[汪殷华, 米湘成, 陈声文, 李铭红, 于明坚 (2011) 古田山常绿阔叶林主要树种2002-2007年间更新动态. 生物多样性, 19, 178-189.]
38 Yan ER, Wang XH, Shi JY, Wang XB, Wang LY (2005) Sprouting ecology of woody plants: a research review. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 16, 2459-2464. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[闫恩荣, 王希华, 施家月, 王希波, 王良衍 (2005) 木本植物萌枝生态学研究进展. 应用生态学报, 16, 2459-2464.]
39 Ye J, Hao ZQ, Wang XG, Bai XJ, Xing DL, Yuan ZQ (2014) Local-scale drivers of multi-stemmed tree formation in Acer, in a temperate forest of northeast China. Chinese Science Bulletin, 59, 320-325.
40 Yu MJ, Hu ZH, Yu JP, Ding BY, Fang T (2001) Forest vegetation types in Gutianshan Natural Reserve in Zhejiang. Journal of Zhejiang University (Agriculture and Life Sciences), 27, 375-380. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[于明坚, 胡正华, 余建平, 丁炳扬, 方腾 (2001) 浙江古田山自然保护区森林植被类型. 浙江大学学报(农业与生命科学版), 27, 375-380.]
41 Zhou CN, Shen YX (2012) Sprouting characteristics of plant in a semi-humid evergreen broad-leaved forest on the karst hill slope. Journal of Yunnan University, 34(Suppl.1), 135-140, 148. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[周长宁, 沈有信 (2012) 半湿润常绿阔叶林植物萌生特征在喀斯特丘陵坡面上的变化. 云南大学学报(自然科学版), 34(Suppl.1), 135-140, 148.]
42 Zhu WZ, Wang JX, Luo CR, Duan XM (2007) Progresses of studies on forest sprout regeneration. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 43(9), 74-82. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[朱万泽, 王金锡, 罗成荣, 段学梅 (2007) 森林萌生更新研究进展. 林业科学, 43(9), 74-82.]
[1] Yi Li Zhiyao Tang Yujing Yan Ke Wang Lei Cai Jinsheng He Song Gu Yijian Yao. (2020) Incorporating species distribution modelling into the red list assessment and conservation of macrofungi: A case study with Ophiocordyceps sinensis . Biodiv Sci, 28(1): 0-0.
[2] Wenying Zhuang Yi Li Huandi Zheng Zhaoqing Zeng Xincun Wang. (2020) Threat status of macro-ascomycetes in China and analysis of its threatening factors . Biodiv Sci, 28(1): 0-0.
[3] Shun Li, Liang Zou, Yinan Gong, Haitao Yang, Tianming Wang, Limin Feng, Jianping Ge. (2019) Advances in LiDAR technology in the field of animal ecology . Biodiv Sci, 27(9): 1021-1031.
[4] Rui Yang, Qinyi Peng, Yue Cao, Le Zhong, Shuyu Hou, Zhicong Zhao, Cheng Huang. (2019) Transformative changes and paths toward biodiversity conservation in China . Biodiv Sci, 27(9): 1032-1040.
[5] Yongmin Li, Xiaobing Wu. (2019) A revised species list of amphibians and reptiles in the Anhui Province . Biodiv Sci, 27(9): 1002-1011.
[6] FANG Wen-Jing,CAI Qiong,ZHU Jiang-Ling,JI Cheng-Jun,YUE Ming,GUO Wei-Hua,ZHANG Feng,GAO Xian-Ming,TANG Zhi-Yao,FANG Jing-Yun. (2019) Distribution, community structures and species diversity of larch forests in North China . Chin J Plant Ecol, 43(9): 742-752.
[7] XU Jin-Shi,CHAI Yong-Fu,LIU Xiao,YUE Ming,GUO Yao-Xin,KANG Mu-Yi,LIU Quan-Ru,ZHENG Cheng-Yang,JI Cheng-Jun,YAN Ming,ZHANG Feng,GAO Xian-Ming,WANG Ren-Qing,SHI Fu-Chen,ZHANG Qin-Di,WANG Mao. (2019) Community assembly, diversity patterns and distributions of broad-leaved forests in North China . Chin J Plant Ecol, 43(9): 732-741.
[8] Junning Li, Tong Li, Yulian Wei. (2019) Relationship between diversity of wood-decaying fungi and their host wood in the Fenglin National Nature Reserve . Biodiv Sci, 27(8): 880-886.
[9] Zhang Yuanyuan. (2019) China’s strategy for incorporating traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity into international multi-lateral agreements . Biodiv Sci, 27(7): 708-715.
[10] Cao Ning, Xue Dayuan. (2019) On biodiversity conservation by Zhuang traditional culture: A case study in Jingxi City of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region . Biodiv Sci, 27(7): 728-734.
[11] Yang Yunhui, Bai Keyu, Jarvis Devra, Long Chunlin. (2019) Xishuangbanna cucumber landraces and associated traditional knowledge . Biodiv Sci, 27(7): 743-748.
[12] Sun Beibei, Yu Cungen, Liu Hui, Yan Wenchao, Zhang Wenjun, Dai Dongxu. (2019) Spring and autumn shrimp and crab biodiversity in the east Nanji Islands . Biodiv Sci, 27(7): 787-795.
[13] Ding Lubin, Ma Nan, Wang Guoping, He Siyuan, Min Qingwen. (2019) Visual analysis of hotspots and emerging trends in traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity . Biodiv Sci, 27(7): 716-727.
[14] Kong Jiaxin, Zhang Zhaochen, Zhang Jian. (2019) Classification and identification of plant species based on multi-source remote sensing data: Research progress and prospect . Biodiv Sci, 27(7): 796-812.
[15] XU Guang-Yao, LI Hong-Yuan, MO Xun-Qiang, MENG Wei-Qing. (2019) Composition and spatial-temporal distribution of Chinese naturalized plants . Chin J Plant Ecol, 43(7): 601-610.
Full text