Biodiversity Science ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (4): 372-381.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016257

• Original Papers: Plant Diversity • Previous Article     Next Article

Multi-scale assessments of forest fragmentation in China

Yao Li1, Xiangming Xiao1, 2, *, Xiangping Li1, Jun Ma1, Bangqian Chen1, Yuanwei Qin2, Jinwei Dong3, Bin Zhao1   

  1. 1 Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China
    2 Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, Center for Spatial Analysis, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, USA
    3 Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Science and Natural Resource Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2016-09-12 Accepted:2017-03-29 Online:2017-04-20
  • Xiao Xiangming E-mail:xiangming.xiao@ou.edu

We used the forest fragmentation model to assess forest fragmentation in China based on a 50-m forest cover map in 2010. Six different fragmentation types including interior forest, perforated forest, edge forest, patch forest, transitional forest and undetermined were obtained. We reported the forest fragmentation status in different administration scales (by country, province, and county) based on Chinese administration boundary map of 2010, At the national scale, the patch forest accounted for the largest proportion (49.05%), while the interior forest was the smallest (3.40%). At the regional scale, Northeast China had the lowest forest fragmentation, while Southwest China had moderate forest fragmentation. The highest forest fragmentation areas were mainly distributed in the North China Plain, Central China, Shandong Peninsula and the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain. At the provincial scale, the highest forest fragmentation was located in Shanghai and Tianjin, and the lowest forest fragmentation was located in Yunnan Province and Heilongjiang Province. At the county scale, the lowest forest fragmentation was located in counties in Shaanxi Province. Overall, our results have clearly shown that forest fragmentation occurs extensively and varies substantially over China in 2010. Our study will provide data support for the forestry administrative sector to conduct better forest management and to optimize forestry production and forest spatial patterns, which can improve forest ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation.

Key words: China, forest fragmentation, fragmentation model, multi-scale, distribution ratio

Table 1

Criteria for forest fragmentation types"

类型 Type 判定标准 Criterion 说明 Description
斑块森林Patch forest Pf < 0.4 森林密度小于40% Forest density is less than 40%
过渡森林Transitional forest 0.4 < Pf < 0.6 森林密度介于40-60%之间 Forest density is between 40% and 60%
孔洞森林Perforated forest Pf > 0.6, Pf - Pff > 0 森林密度大于60%且森林密度大于森林连接度
Forest density is greater than 60%, and forest density is greater than forest connectivity
未确定Undetermined Pf > 0.6, Pf = Pff 森林密度大于60%且森林密度等于森林连接度
Forest density is greater than 60%, and forest density is equal to forest connectivity
边缘森林Edge forest Pf > 0.6, Pf - Pff < 0 森林密度大于60%且森林密度小于森林连接度
Forest density is greater than 60%, and forest density is less than forest connectivity
内部森林Interior forest Pf = 1 森林密度为100%, 亦可称作完整森林
Forest density is 100%, and also can be known as complete forest

Fig. 1

The workflow for analyzing forest fragmentation of China. (a) Distribution of forest; (b) Forest density (Pf); (c) Forest connectivity (Pff); (d) Distribution of forest fragmentation."

Fig. 2

Frequency of forest density (Pf) and forest connectivity (Pff) in the forest fragmentation model"

Fig. 3

The areas and percentages of various forest fragmentation types in China"

Table 2

Forest area and percentage of forest fragmentation types at provincial scale"

省/区名
Province/region
森林面积
Forest area (km2)
斑块
Patch (%)
过渡
Transitional (%)
孔洞
Perforated (%)
未确定
Undetermined (%)
边缘
Edge (%)
内部
Interior (%)
黑龙江 Heilongjiang 278,034.73 38.37 8.75 36.66 0.03 6.72 9.47
四川 Sichuan 248,583.13 44.11 17.64 16.43 0.05 19.31 2.45
云南 Yunnan 230,131.73 26.36 16.97 28.85 0.08 23.68 4.07
内蒙古 Inner Mongolia 203,160.96 40.83 8.23 29.78 0.03 9.31 11.82
广西 Guangxi 143,319.58 35.14 21.25 23.28 0.07 19.36 0.90
湖南 Hunan 129,880.06 45.96 18.98 18.73 0.06 15.47 0.80
西藏 Tibet 129,673.51 46.02 12.04 20.13 0.05 17.61 4.16
湖北 Hubei 112,266.81 48.38 14.23 19.61 0.06 16.29 1.43
吉林 Jilin 110,053.89 40.54 8.88 30.63 0.03 8.40 11.53
贵州 Guizhou 108,704.03 42.62 23.62 15.04 0.06 18.25 0.41
广东 Guangdong 104,709.11 42.96 17.26 23.52 0.05 14.57 1.64
河北 Hebei 100,720.87 80.48 10.36 4.26 0.01 4.79 0.09
江西 Jiangxi 99,898.31 41.00 16.86 26.79 0.06 14.06 1.22
河南 Henan 94,811.72 78.71 9.11 6.68 0.02 5.20 0.28
陕西 Shaanxi 94,132.33 37.28 15.27 23.91 0.08 21.16 2.30
新疆 Xinjiang 92,699.24 82.77 9.09 3.21 0.01 4.69 0.23
辽宁 Liaoning 92,018.43 63.95 12.83 13.19 0.03 8.41 1.59
山东 Shandong 87,139.80 86.88 8.34 2.66 0.01 1.97 0.14
安徽 Anhui 82,906.74 64.96 11.50 15.03 0.03 7.91 0.56
福建 Fujian 75,164.76 23.26 17.66 34.36 0.10 22.32 2.30
甘肃 Gansu 65,808.05 64.72 11.12 10.43 0.04 12.62 1.07
浙江 Zhejiang 63,367.31 33.64 16.58 28.96 0.09 19.58 1.15
山西 Shanxi 60,692.29 69.90 10.23 9.75 0.03 9.05 1.04
江苏 Jiangsu 54,259.88 91.24 5.78 2.08 0.00 0.80 0.09
重庆 Chongqing 52,634.41 48.84 18.81 14.60 0.06 16.83 0.86
青海 Qinghai 31,309.74 88.00 5.87 1.92 0.01 4.07 0.14
台湾 Taiwan 21,229.70 29.32 12.55 32.94 0.07 19.56 5.55
海南 Hainan 19,339.76 39.06 16.26 30.83 0.05 9.98 3.81
北京 Beijing 11,312.26 58.65 15.41 11.62 0.04 13.48 0.80
宁夏 Ningxia 5,206.68 89.40 4.68 2.74 0.00 2.98 0.19
天津 Tianjin 4,805.12 92.54 4.41 1.59 0.00 1.39 0.08
上海 Shanghai 3,421.85 93.68 5.66 0.63 0.00 0.03 0.00
香港 Hong Kong 627.35 38.25 16.37 18.79 0.00 20.27 6.33

Fig. 4

Frequency of various forest fragmentation types at provincial scale"

Table 3

Percentage of forest fragmentation types at county scale. The 10 counties with patch forests are ranked by the lowest percentage, while the other 40 counties are ranked by the highest percentage."

县/市名 County/city 百分比 %
斑块森林 Patch forest
陕西省留坝县 Liuba, Shaanxi 3.80
陕西省佛坪县 Foping, Shaanxi 3.93
海南省琼中黎族苗族自治县 Qiongzhong, Hainan 4.41
云南省勐腊县 Mengla, Yunnan 5.52
黑龙江省伊春市市辖区 Yichun, Heilongjiang 5.62
陕西省宁陕县 Ningshan, Shaanxi 6.43
云南省江城哈尼族彝族自治县 Jiangcheng, Yunnan 6.45
海南省五指山市 Wuzhishan, Hainan 6.73
陕西省镇坪县 Zhenping, Shaanxi 6.85
云南省普洱哈尼族彝族自治县 Puer, Yunnan 7.27
过渡森林 Transitional forest
四川省简阳市 Jianyang, Sichuan 41.01
四川省乐至县 Lezhi, Sichuan 40.89
安徽省砀山县 Dangshan, Anhui 37.69
四川省安岳县 Anyue, Sichuan 37.68
四川省射洪县 Shehong, Sichuan 35.99
四川省盐亭县 Yanting, Sichuan 35.53
四川省三台县 Santai, Sichuan 34.71
四川省西充县 Xichong, Sichuan 33.81
四川省名山县 Mingshan, Sichuan 32.87
四川省攀枝花市 Panzhihua, Sichuan 32.65
孔洞森林 Perforated forest
黑龙江省塔河县 Tahe, Heilongjiang 66.96
海南省琼中黎族苗族自治县 Qiongzhong, Hainan 59.68
黑龙江省伊春市市辖区 Yichun, Heilongjiang 59.28
吉林省安图县 Antu, Jilin 58.32
黑龙江省逊克县 Xunke, Heilongjiang 57.18
黑龙江省呼玛县 Huma, Heilongjiang 57.04
黑龙江省漠河县 Mohe, Heilongjiang 56.98
吉林省抚松县 Fusong, Jilin 56.84
云南省梁河县 Lianghe, Yunnan 55.34
广西省昭平县 Zhaoping, Guangxi 54.01
边缘森林 Edge forest
陕西省石泉县 Shiquan, Shaanxi 36.17
广西省天峨县 Tiane, Guangxi 35.51
陕西省略阳县 Lueyang, Shaanxi 34.46
四川省青川县 Qingchuan, Sichuan 34.45
陕西省镇安县 zhen’an, Shaanxi 33.14
陕西省平利县 Pingli, Shaanxi 33.06
湖北省保康县 Baokang, Hubei 32.86
云南省绿春县 Lvchun, Yunnan 32.63
陕西省留坝县 Liuba, Shaanxi 32.61
陕西省镇坪县 Zhenping, Shaanxi 32.59
内部森林 Interior forest
吉林省和龙市 Helong, Jilin 34.66
黑龙江省海林市 Hailin, Heilongjiang 33.62
黑龙江省铁力市 Tieli, Heilongjiang 32.27
吉林省珲春市 Hunchun, Jilin 30.91
吉林省敦化市 Dunhua, Jilin 28.41
吉林省汪清县 Wangqing, Jilin 27.92
黑龙江省伊春市市辖区 Yichun, Heilongjiang 26.42
黑龙江省通河县 Tonghe, Heilongjiang 25.10
内蒙古额尔古纳市 Argun, Inner Mongolia 23.09
吉林省安图县 Antu, Jilin 19.65

Fig. 5

Percentage distribution of forest fragmentation types at provincial and county scale. Province: (a) Patch; (b) Transitional; (c) Perforated; (d) Edge; (e) Interior. County: (f) Patch; (g) Transitional; (h) Perforated; (i) Edge; (j) Interior."

Fig. 6

Frequency of forest fragmentation types at county scale"

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