Biodiversity Science ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (5): 453-463.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016134

• Reviews • Previous Article     Next Article

Research advances and challenges in the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems

Jianbo Tan1, 2, Ainong Li1, *(), Guangbin Lei1, Guoke Chen3, Keping Ma3   

  1. 1 Research Center for Digital Mountain and Remote Sensing Application, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    3 State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
  • Received:2016-05-15 Accepted:2017-02-27 Online:2017-06-06
  • Li Ainong E-mail:ainongli@imde.ac.cn

The Red List of Ecosystems is a growing toolbox for assessing risks to biodiversity at the ecosystem level, which is complementary to the Red List of Threatened Species and important for the protection of key species’ habitats. The IUCN Red List of Ecosystems Criteria was adopted as an official global standard for assessing the risks to ecosystems by the IUCN Council. With the revision and extension of the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems Criteria, this framework is gradually improved, which plays an important role in biodiversity conservation and ecosystem management. However, it faces challenges in ecosystem mapping, the concepts of ecosystem collapse and practical application. This paper reviews the development of the Red List of Ecosystems and introduces the five criterions in the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems protocol (declining in distribution, restricted distribution, abiotic degradation, biotic degradation and quantitative estimates of risk of ecosystem collapse) and how it is used. While focusing on the challenges in the assessment with the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems Criteria, we also discuss the potential solutions to these problems based on remote sensing and ecological models. We points out that the explicit definition of ecosystem collapse and the classification system of ecosystems is essential for applying the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems Criteria; the scale effects have great impacts on the results of assessment; assessment at hierarchical scales may be a potential method to provide spatial information for the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems; incorporating remote sensing and ecological models into this framework is an important way to study the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems Criteria in the near future.

Key words: IUCN Red List of Ecosystems, threatened status of ecosystem, scale effects, biodiversity

Fig. 1

Results derived from proportional rate of decline versus absolute rate of decline (adapted from Rodríguez et al, 2015)"

Fig. 2

The diagram of habitat restricted distribution (Criterion B). Extent of Occurrence (EOO) is 28,249 km2 and Area of Occupancy (AOO) is 88 (adapted from Keith et al, 2013)."

Fig. 3

The steps followed for the application of IUCN of Ecosystems Categories and Criteria (adapted from Rodríguez et al, 2015)"

[1] Barrett GW (1978) Stress effects on natural ecosystems. Ohio Journal of Science, 78, 160-162.
[2] Begon M, Townsend CR, Harper JL (2005) Ecology: From Individuals to Ecosystems, 4th edn. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.
[3] Blab J, Riecken U, Ssymank A (1995) Proposal on a criteria system for a National Red Data Book of Biotopes. Landscape Ecology, 10, 41-50.
[4] Bland LM, Keith DA, Murray NJ, Rodriguez JP (2015) Guidelines for the application of IUCN Red List of Ecosystems Categories and Criteria.
[5] Boitani L, Mace GM, Rondinini C (2015) Challenging the scientific foundations for an IUCN Red List of Ecosystems. Conservation Letters, 8, 125-131.
[6] Burgess ND, Hales JD, Ricketts TH, Dinerstein E (2006) Factoring species, non-species values and threats into biodiversity prioritisation across the ecoregions of Africa and its islands. Biological Conservation, 127, 383-401.
[7] Cardinale BJ, Duffy JE, Gonzalez A, Hooper DU, Perrings C, Venail P, Narwani A, Mace GM, Tilman D, Wardle DA (2012) Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity. Nature, 486, 59-67.
[8] Ceballos G, Ehrlich PR, Barnosky AD, García A, Pringle RM, Palmer TM (2015) Accelerated modern human-induced species losses: entering the sixth mass extinction. Science Advances, 1, e1400253.
[9] Chen GK, Ma KP (2012) Criteria and methods for assessing the threat status of ecosystem. Biodiversity Science, 20, 66-75. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[陈国科, 马克平 (2012) 生态系统受威胁等级的评估标准和方法. 生物多样性, 20, 66-75.]
[10] Editorial Committee of Vegetation Atlas of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences(2007) 1: 1000000 Vegetation Atlas of People’s Republic of China. Geological Publishing House, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[中国科学院中国植被图编辑委员会(2007) 中华人民共和植被图(1: 1000000). 地质出版社, 北京. ]
[11] Christensen NL, Bartuska AM, Brown JH, Carpenter S, D’Antonio C, Francis R, Franklin JF, MacMahon JA, Noss RF, Parsons DJ, Peterson CH, Turner MG, Woodmansee RG (1996) The report of the Ecological Society of America Committee on the scientific basis for ecosystem management. Ecological Applications, 6, 665-691.
[12] Collinge SK (1996) Ecological consequences of habitat fragmentation: implications for landscape architecture and planning. Landscape and Urban Planning, 36, 59-77.
[13] Commonwealth of Australia (1999) Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act. Department of Environment, Australian. https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/ C2016C00431. (accessed 2016-02-08)
[14] Crespin SJ, Simonetti JA (2015) Predicting ecosystem collapse: spatial factors that influence risks to tropical ecosystems. Austral Ecology, 40, 492-501.
[15] de Araujo Barbosa CC, Atkinson PM, Dearing JA (2015) Remote sensing of ecosystem services: a systematic review. Ecological Indicators, 52, 430-443.
[16] Driver A (2005) National Spatial Biodiversity Assessment 2004: Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation in South Africa. PhD disseration, National Biodiversity Institute, South Africa.
[17] Fahrig L (2003) Effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 34, 487-515.
[18] Ferrier S (2002) Mapping spatial pattern in biodiversity for regional conservation planning: where to from here? Systematic Biology, 51, 331-363.
[19] Fontaine C, Dajoz I, Meriguet J, Loreau M (2005) Functional diversity of plant-pollinator interaction webs enhances the persistence of plant communities. PLoS Biology, 4, e1.
[20] Hector A, Bagchi R (2007) Biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionality. Nature, 448, 188-190.
[21] Hooper DU, Chapin IF, Ewel JJ, Hector A, Inchausti P, Lavorel S, Lawton JH, Lodge DM, Loreau M, Naeem S (2005) Effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning: a consensus of current knowledge. Ecological Monographs, 75, 3-35.
[22] IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) (2001) IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, Version 3.0. IUCN Publication, Switzerland.
[23] IUCN (2016) Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, Version 12.0.
[24] Jones CG, Lawton JH, Shachak M (1994) Organisms as Ecosystem Engineers, pp. 130-147. Springer, New York.
[25] Keith DA (2009) The interpretation, assessment and conservation of ecological communities. Ecological Management & Restoration, 10, S3-S15.
[26] Keith DA (2015) Assessing and managing risks to ecosystem biodiversity. Austral Ecology, 40, 337-346.
[27] Keith DA, Rodríguez JP, Brooks TM, Burgman MA, Barrow EG, Bland L, Comer PJ, Franklin J, Link J, McCarthy MA (2015) The IUCN Red List of Ecosystems: motivations, challenges and applications. Conservation Letters, 8, 214-226.
[28] Keith DA, Rodríguez JP, Rodríguez-Clark KM, Nicholson E, Aapala K, Alonso A, Asmussen M, Bachman S, Basset A, Barrow EG (2013) Scientific foundations for an IUCN Red List of Ecosystems. PLoS ONE, 8, e62111.
[29] Klijn F, de Haes HAU (1994) A hierarchical approach to ecosystems and its implications for ecological land classification. Landscape Ecology, 9, 89-104.
[30] Lackey RT (1994) Ecological risk assessment. Fisheries, 19, 14-19.
[31] Lei GB, Li AN, Bian JH, Zhang ZJ, Jin HA, Nan X, Zhao W, Wang JY, Cao XM, Tan JB, Liu QN, Yu H, Yang GB, Feng WL (2016) Land cover mapping in southwestern China using the HC-MMK approach. Remote Sensing, 8, 1-22.
[32] Lindgaard A, Henriksen S (2011) The 2011 Norwegian Red List for ecosystems and habitat types. Norwegian Biodiversity Information Centre, Trondheim.
[33] Liu JY (1997) Study on national resources & environment survey and dynamic monitoring using remote sensing. Journal of Remote Sensing, 1, 225-230.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [刘纪远 (1997) 国家资源环境遥感宏观调查与动态监测研究. 遥感学报, 1, 225-230.]
[34] Loreau M (2010) Linking biodiversity and ecosystems: towards a unifying ecological theory. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 365, 49-60.
[35] Ma KP (2013) Studies on biodiversity and ecosystem function via manipulation experiments. Biodiversity Science, 21, 247-248. (in Chinese)
[马克平 (2013) 生物多样性与生态系统功能的实验研究. 生物多样性, 21, 247-248.]
[36] Ma KP (2016) Hot topics for biodiversity science. Biodiversity Science, 24, 1-2. (in Chinese)
[马克平 (2016) 生物多样性科学的热点问题. 生物多样性, 24, 1-2.]
[37] Ma KP, Qian YQ (1998) Biodiversity conservation and its research progress. Chinese Journal of Applied and Environmental Biology, 4, 95-99. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[马克平, 钱迎倩 (1998) 生物多样性保护及其研究进展. 应用与环境生物学报, 4, 95-99.]
[38] MA (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment) (2005) Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Biodiversity Synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DC.
[39] Mace GM, Collar NJ, Gaston KJ, Hilton-Taylor C, Akçakaya R, Leader-Williams N, Milner-Gulland EJ, Stuart SN (2008) Quantification of extinction risk: IUCN’s system for classifying threatened species. Conservation Biology, 22, 1424-1442.
[40] Mitchell CE, Agrawal AA, Bever JD, Gilbert GS, Hufbauer RA, Klironomos JN, Maron JL, Morris WF, Parker IM, Power AG, Seabloom EW, Torchin ME, Vazquez DP (2006) Biotic interactions and plant invasions. Ecology Letters, 9, 726-740.
[41] Murray NJ, Ma ZJ, Fuller RA (2015) Tidal flats of the Yellow Sea: a review of ecosystem status and anthropogenic threats. Austral Ecology, 40, 472-481.
[42] Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, da Fonseca GAB, Kent J (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature, 403, 853-858.
[43] Nicholson E, Keith DA, Wilcove DS (2009) Assessing the threat status of ecological communities. Conservation Biology, 23, 259-274.
[44] Nicholson E, Regan TJ, Auld TD, Burns EL, Chisholm LA, English V, Harris S, Harrison P, Kingsford RT, Leishman MR, Metcalfe DJ, Pisanu P, Watson CJ, White M, White M, Williams RJ, Wilson B, Keith DA (2015) Towards consistency, rigour and compatibility of risk assessments for ecosystems and ecological communities. Austral Ecology, 40, 347-363.
[45] Noss RF (1990) Indicators for monitoring biodiversity: a hierarchical approach. Conservation Biology, 4, 355-364.
[46] Noss RF (1996) Ecosystems as conservation targets. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 11, 419-422.
[47] Noss RF, LaRoe ET, Scott JM (1995) Endangered ecosystems of the United States: a preliminary assessment of loss and degradation. US Department of the Interior, National Biological Service, Washington, DC.
[48] O’Neill RV(1986) A Hierarchical Concept of Ecosystems. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
[49] Odum EP (1977) The emergence of ecology as a new integrative discipline. Science, 195, 1289-1293.
[50] Odum EP (1985) Trends expected in stressed ecosystems. BioScience, 35, 419-422.
[51] Olson DM, Dinerstein E, Wikramanayake ED, Burgess ND, Powell GVN, Underwood EC, D’amico JA, Itoua I, Strand HE, Morrison JC, Loucks CJ, Allnutt TF, Ricketts TH, Kura Y, Lamoreux JF, Wettengel WW, Hedao P, Kassem KR (2001) Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on earth. BioScience, 51, 933-938.
[52] Ostro LET, Young TP, Silver SC, Koontz FW (1999) A geographic information system method for estimating home range size. Journal of Wildlife Management, 63,748-755.
[53] Payet K, Rouget M, Esler KJ, Reyers B, Rebelo T, Thompson MW, Vlok JHJ (2013) Effect of land cover and ecosystem mapping on ecosystem-risk assessment in the little karoo, South Africa. Conservation Biology, 27, 531-541.
[54] Peterson G, Allen CR, Holling CS (1998) Ecological resilience, biodiversity, and scale. Ecosystems, 1, 6-18.
[55] Pettorelli N, Laurance WiF, O’Brien TG, Wegmann M, Nagendra H, Turner W (2014) Satellite remote sensing for applied ecologists: opportunities and challenges. Journal of Applied Ecology, 51, 839-848.
[56] Pettorelli N, Wegmann M, Skidmore A, Mücher S, Dawson TP, Fernandez M, Lucas R, Schaepman ME, Wang T, O’Connor B (2016) Framing the concept of satellite remote sensing essential biodiversity variables: challenges and future directions. Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation, 2, 122-131.
[57] Pimm SL, Jenkins CN, Abell Robin, Brooks TM, Gittleman JL, Joppa LN, Raven PH, Roberts CM, Sexton JO (2014) The biodiversity of species and their rates of extinction, distribution, and protection. Science, 344, 1246752.
[58] Pimm SL, Russell GJ, Gittleman JL, Brooks TM (1995) The future of biodiversity. Science, 269, 347-350.
[59] Rapport DJ (1989) What constitutes ecosystem health? Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 33, 120-132.
[60] Rapport DJ, Regier HA, Hutchinson TC (1985) Ecosystem behavior under stress. The American Naturalist, 125, 617-640.
[61] Rapport DJ, Costanza Robert, McMichael AJ (1998) Assessing ecosystem health. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 13, 397-402.
[62] Rodríguez JP, Balch JK, Rodríguez-Clark KM (2006) Assessing extinction risk in the absence of species-level data: quantitative criteria for terrestrial ecosystems. Biodiversity and Conservation, 16, 183-209.
[63] Rodríguez JP, Keith DA, Rodríguez-Clark KM, Murray NiJ, Nicholson E, Regan TJ, Miller RM, Barrow EG, Bland LM, Boe K, Brooks TM, Oliveira-Miranda MA, Spalding M, Wit P (2015) A practical guide to the application of the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems criteria. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 370, 1-9.
[64] Rodríguez JP, Rodríguez-Clark KM, Keith DA, Barrow EG, Benson J, Nicholson E, Wit P (2012) IUCN red list of ecosystems. Surveys and Perspectives Integrating Environment and Society, 5, 61-70.
[65] Rodríguez JP, Rodriguez-Clark KM, Baillie JE, Ash N, Benson J, Boucher T, Brown C, Burgess ND, Collen B, Jennings M, Keith DA, Nicholson E, Revenga C, Reyers B, Rouget M, Smith T, Spalding M, Taber A, Walpole M, Zager I, Zamin T (2011) Establishing IUCN Red List criteria for threatened ecosystems. Conservation Biology, 25, 21-29.
[66] Rouget M, Reyers B, Jonas Z, Desmet P, Driver A, Maze K, Egoh B, Cowling RM, Mucina L, Rutherford MC (2004) South African National Spatial Biodiversity Assessment 2004: Technical Report. Vol. 1. Terrestrial component. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.
[67] Saunders DA, Hobbs Richard J, Margules Chris R (1991) Biological consequences of ecosystem fragmentation: a review. Conservation Biology, 5, 18-32.
[68] Sayre R, Dangermond J, Frye C, Vaughan R, Aniello P, Breyer S, Cribbs D, Hopkins D, Nauman R, Derrenbacher W (2014) A New Map of Global Ecological Land Units—An Ecophysiographic Stratification Approach. Association of American Geographers, Washington, DC.
[69] Turner MG, O’Neill RV, Gardner RH, Milne BT (1989) Effects of changing spatial scale on the analysis of landscape pattern. Landscape Ecology, 3, 153-162.
[70] Vázquez DP, Simberloff D (2003) Changes in interaction biodiversity induced by an introduced ungulate. Ecology Letters, 6, 1077-1083.
[71] Vitousek PM, Mooney HA, Lubchenco J, Melillo JM (1997) Human domination of Earth’s ecosystems. Science, 277, 494-499.
[72] Walker S, Price R, Rutledge D, Stephens RTT, Lee WG (2006) Recent loss of indigenous cover in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology, 30, 169-177.
[73] Wang K, Franklin SE, Guo XL, Cattet M (2010) Remote sensing of ecology, biodiversity and conservation: a review from the perspective of remote sensing specialists. Sensors, 10, 9647-9667.
[74] Wiens JA (1989) Spatial scaling in ecology. Functional Ecology, 3, 385-397.
[75] Zhu C, Fang Y, Zhou KX, Mu SJ, Jiang JL (2015) IUCN Red List of Ecosystems, a new tool for biodiversity conservation. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 35, 2826-2836. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[朱超, 方颖, 周可新, 穆少杰, 蒋金亮 (2015) 生态系统红色名录:一种新的生物多样性保护工具. 生态学报, 35, 2826-2836.]
[1] Xing Yuan, Wu Xiaoping, Ouyang Shan, Zhang Junqian, Xu Jing, Yin Senlu, Xie Zhicai. Assessment of macrobenthos biodiversity and potential human-induced stressors in the Ganjiang River system [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(6): 648-657.
[2] Zou Anlong, Ma Suhui, Ni Xiaofeng, Cai Qiong, Li Xiuping, Ji Chengjun. Response of understory plant diversity to nitrogen deposition in Quercus wutaishanica forests of Mt. Dongling, Beijing [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(6): 607-618.
[3] Liu Yan, Yang Yushuang. Importance of conservation priority areas for bryophyte biodiversity in Chongqing [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(6): 677-682.
[4] Gui Xujun, Lian Juyu, Zhang Ruyun, Li Yanpeng, Shen Hao, Ni Yunlong, Ye Wanhui. Vertical structure and its biodiversity in a subtropical evergreen broad- leaved forest at Dinghushan in Guangdong Province, China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(6): 619-629.
[5] Mu Jun, Wang Jiaojiao, Zhang Lei, Li Yunbo, Li Zhumei, Su Haijun. Field monitoring using infrared cameras and activity rhythm analysis on mammals and birds in Xishui National Nature Reserve, Guizhou, China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(6): 683-688.
[6] Zhang Xiaoling, Li Yichao, Wang Yunyun, Cai Hongyu, Zeng Hui, Wang Zhiheng. Influence of future climate change in suitable habitats of tea in different countries [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(6): 595-606.
[7] Li Hanxi, Huang Xuena, Li Shiguo, Zhan Aibin. Environmental DNA (eDNA)-metabarcoding-based early monitoring and warning for invasive species in aquatic ecosystems [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(5): 491-504.
[8] Shao Xinning, Song Dazhao, Huang Qiaowen, Li Sheng, Yao Meng. Fast surveys and molecular diet analysis of carnivores based on fecal DNA and metabarcoding [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(5): 543-556.
[9] Zhu Baijing, Xue Jingrong, Xia Rong, Jin Miaomiao, Wu You, Tian Shanyi, Chen Xiaoyun, Liu Manqiang, Hu Feng. Effect of soil nematode functional guilds on plant growth and aboveground herbivores [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(4): 409-418.
[10] Ma Yanjie, He Haopeng, Shen Wenjing, Liu Biao, Xue Kun. Effects of transgenic maize on arthropod diversity [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(4): 419-432.
[11] Zhao Yang,Wen Yuanyuan. Development of Convention on Biological Diversity’s Global Platform for Business & Biodiversity: Policy suggestion for China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(3): 339-346.
[12] Qian Haiyuan,Yu Jianping,Shen Xiaoli,Ding Ping,Li Sheng. Diversity and composition of birds in the Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(1): 76-80.
[13] Dai Yunchuan,Xue Yadong,Zhang Yunyi,Li Diqiang. Summary comments on assessment methods of ecosystem integrity for national parks [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(1): 104-113.
[14] Xueming Lei,Fangfang Shen,Xuechen Lei,Wenfei Liu,Honglang Duan,Houbao Fan,Jianping Wu. Assessing influence of simulated canopy nitrogen deposition and understory removal on soil microbial community structure in a Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2018, 26(9): 962-971.
[15] Anrong Liu,Teng Yang,Wei Xu,Zijian Shangguan,Jinzhou Wang,Huiying Liu,Yu Shi,Haiyan Chu,Jin-Sheng He. Status, issues and prospects of belowground biodiversity on the Tibetan alpine grassland [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2018, 26(9): 972-987.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
[1] LI Zong-Shan, LIU Guo-Hua, FU Ba-Jie, ZHANG Ji-Bing, HU Chan-Juan, LUO Chu-Zheng. Evaluation of temporal stability in tree growth-climate response in Wolong National Natural Reserve, western Sichuan, China[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2010, 34(9): 1045 -1057 .
[2] Li Wang, Qinqin Wang, Youqun Wang. Cytochemical Localization of ATPase and Acid Phosphatase in Minor Veins of the Leaf of Vicia faba During Different Developmental Stages[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2014, 49(1): 78 -86 .
[3] Organizing Committee of the Fourth Xishuangbanna International Symposium. The Xishuangbanna Declaration on Plant Conservation[J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(1): 114 -115 .
[4] QIU Jun, GU Jia-Cun, JIANG Hong-Ying, WANG Zheng-Quan. Factors influencing fine root longevity of plantation-grown Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2010, 34(9): 1066 -1074 .
[5] Chen Zheng. Arabidopsis thaliana as a Model Species for Plant Molecular Biology Studies[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1994, 11(01): 6 -11 .
[6] Yuecun Ma, Biao Zhu, Zhenzhong Sun, Chuang Zhao, Yan Yang, Shilong Piao. The effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on extracellular enzyme activities of litter and soil among different-aged stands of larch[J]. J Plant Ecol, 2014, 7(3): 240 -249 .
[7] Chen Jia-You, Zhu Hui-Zhong. Amphiraphidales, a New Order of the Pennatae, Bacillariophyta[J]. J Syst Evol, 1983, 21(4): 449 -456 .
[8] . [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1996, 13(专辑): 13 -16 .
[9] QIU Dong-Liang, LIU Xing-Hui, GUO Su-Zhi. Effects of Simulated Acid Rain Stress on Gas Exchange and Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Parameters in Leaves of Longan[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2002, 26(4): 441 -446 .
[10] NIE Jing-Lei,HAO Xiao-Jiang. SPIRAMILACTONE B, A NEW DITERPENOID FROM SPIRAEA JAPONICA VAR. STELLARIS[J]. Plant Diversity, 1996, 18(02): 1 -3 .