Biodiversity Science ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (6): 686-693.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016033

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Progress in the researches on the Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB)

Leshan Du, Junsheng Li, Gaohui Liu, Fengchun Zhang, Jing Xu, Lile Hu*()   

  1. Research Center for Biodiversity, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
  • Received:2016-01-28 Accepted:2016-05-05 Online:2016-06-20
  • Hu Lile E-mail:hulile@craes.org.cn

The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB), which provides new insight and approaches for biodiversity conservation and sustainable use, is an integrated approach to assess, demonstrate, and apply policy for biodiversity and ecosystem value. TEEB was firstly proposed in 2007, and has been supported by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) since 2008. Ecosystem services include supply services, regulating services, cultural services, and habitat services based on the TEEB framework. The value evaluation methods generally include the direct market value method, revealed preference method and stated preference method. We also summarized the measures to mainstream biodiversity at the global, regional, national and local levels. Presently, more than 30 countries have undertaken studies on TEEB and have produced positive impacts on policy-making and further application of TEEB. For example, at the country level, it can be used to green economy, sustainable development and corporate green management. At the international level, it can support the implementation of the Convention of Biological Diversity and other relevant international action. For the future, this paper suggested TEEB’s focuses: (1) At the international level, it is needed to enhance cross-sector and inter-regional cooperation in biodiversity and promote findings at the science-policy interface; (2) In China, it is needed to build TEEB methodology from the sub-levels (ecosystem, species and gene) and sub-scales (national, provincial and local), and explore the application of TEEB concepts in local development assessment, cadre performance appraisal, paying utilization of natural resources, ecological compensation and other policies in order to promote regional equity and sustainable use of natural resources.

Key words: biodiversity, ecosystem services, value assessment, mainstreaming

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优点 缺点 适用范围 应用实例
一、市场价值法

基于价格:
市场价格法 市场价格可反映人们的支付意愿和交易中的成本和效益。价格数据相对容易获取。 市场不完善/政策失灵可能导致市场价值扭曲, 不能反映产品的价值。 直接和间接使用价值 主要适用于“产品”(如鱼类)、文化(如娱乐)和调节服务(如授粉)
基于成本:
1. 避免成本法 应用了预防性原则 数据和资源的局限性可能排斥最优评估方法 直接和间接使用价值 通过估算成本引起的损失, 得到防洪等的价值。
2. 替代成本法 当估算损害函数的价值所需的生态数据缺失时, 可用此方法估算间接使用价值。 难以保证该方法得到的净效益不会超过原函数的净效益 直接和间接使用价值 根据从其他来源获得的水的成本(替换成本)估算地下水的补给服务的价值
3. 缓解/恢复
成本法
具有用于评估某些环境功能的潜力 因难以恢复现有的生态系统条件和效益递减等因素, 人类对方法的应用存疑。 直接和间接使用价值 如在湿地服务(如防洪)缺失或迁移时的预防性支出
基于生产:
生产函数法 广泛应用于评估湿地破坏、森林砍伐、水体污染等对渔业、狩猎和农业的影响的价值 需要建立资源和某些经济产出之间具有的“剂量效应”模型。该方法单次使用效果很好, 在多用途系统中的应用比较复杂, 存在重复计算。 间接使用价值 土壤肥力如何提高粮食产量, 水质量改善如何提高捕鱼量等。

二、显示性偏好法
旅行成本法 广泛应用于估计估算休闲场地的价值 数据密集; 对消费行为的限制性假设; 评估结果对用于指定供求关系的统计方法高度敏感。 直接(间接)使用价值 如游客在景点所花费的金钱和时间, 可部分反映景点的娱乐价值。
享乐定价法 可用于评估某些湿地服务价值的潜力(如风暴防护、地下水补给等) 在市场失灵、选择收到收入影响、环境条件信息未能有效传播等条件下, 该方法有局限性。 直接和间接使用价值 如清洁的空气、水源和秀美的景色会提高周围房地产的价格。

三、陈述性偏好法
条件估值法 是度量选择价值和存在价值的唯一方法, 是度量总经济价值的可靠方法。 评估结果容易受调查设计和实施过程中偏差的影响 使用和非使用价值 通常为估算非使用价值的唯一方法。如调查问卷询问提升河水质量会如何影响自己游泳、划船、垂钓等活动的欲望。
选择模型法/联合
分析法
比较全面地反映支付意愿 不能单一使用, 一般与条件价值法综合使用。 使用和非使用价值 有不同的应用方法, 包括选择实验, 条件排序, 条件分级和配对比较等。
条件排序 对一系列产品或服务进行估值, 而不在于获得每一项单独的指标 不直接诱导支付意愿, 因此相对其他方法不具备理论优势。 使用和非使用价值 /
协商小组估值法 将陈述偏好与协商过程相结合, 可以弥补显示性偏好法的不足, 如调查中的偏好结构或者调查对象缺乏生态系统服务的了解等。 非使用价值是否可以用货币形式表示, 存在争议。 使用和非使用价值 /
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