Biodiversity Science ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (12): 1381-1389.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015365

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Effects of rhizosphere soil microorganisms and soil nutrients on competitiveness of Bidens pilosa with different native plants

Jing Yan1, Xiaoya Zhang1, Xue Chen2, Yue Wang1, Fengjuan Zhang1, *(), Fanghao Wan3, *()   

  1. 1 College of Life Sciences, Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei 071002
    2 Huihua College of Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050091
    3 Institute of Plant Protection (South Campus), Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Beijing 100193
  • Received:2015-12-23 Accepted:2016-05-16 Online:2017-01-10
  • Zhang Fengjuan,Wan Fanghao;

The invasive plant Bidens pilosa has caused losses to agriculture and livestock. We studied the effects of B. pilosa on rhizosphere soil microorganisms and soil nutrients of different native species. The soil microbial species were examined using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and the concentrations of soil nutrients and the activities of soil enzyme activities were measured. Correlation analysis of soil microbial, soil nutrients, and soil enzyme activities was used in Canoco 4.5. Results showed that B. pilosa had a strong ability to aggregate soil microorganisms such as gram-positive bacterium (G+), gram-negative bacterium (G-), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The microbial species in the rhizosphere soil of B. pilosa was closely related to the native plant species. Bidens pilosa significantly increased the concentration of organic carbon, while decreasing the concentration of ammonium. The concentrations of available potassium, available phosphorus, and nitrate were strongly related to the native plant species. Correlation analysis showed that 16:00 and 16:1ω5c had a significant influence on the concentration of ammonium. The concentrations of 16:00 and 16:1 ω5c in the rhizosphere soil of B. pilosa were significantly higher than that in the soil of the control, which may lead to the decrease of the concentration of ammonium in the rhizosphere soil of B. pilosa. The concentrations of 15:1 anteiso A and 18:1 ω5c were significantly positively correlated with the concentration of available potassium, and its content were significantly greater than the other treatments in Setaria viridis. The concentration of available potassium in the competition treatment between B. pilosa and S. viridis was significantly higher than the other treatments. The above results show that the invasive plant B. pilosa affected soil enzyme activities and soil nutrients via altering microbial communities, and these changes impacted the native plant species.

Key words: Bidens pilosa, native plant species, soil microorganisms, soil nutrient, soil enzymy activity

Table 1

Plant growth in different plots (mean ± SD). B, Bidens pilosa; S, Setaria viridis; C, Chenopodium serotinum; M, Melilotus suaveolens."

Density (inds./m2)
Biomass (kg/m2)
B B 274.00 ± 62.12 0.92±0.22
B+S B 180.00 ± 72.04 0.48 ± 0.16
S 56.00 ± 35.68 0.17 ± 0.05
B+C B 148.00 ± 36.00 0.43 ± 0.11
C 208.00 ± 9.64 0.59 ± 0.09
B+M B 144.00 ± 36.00 0.51 ± 0.01
M 192.00 ± 6.08 0.55 ± 0.01

Fig. 1

Change of total PLFAs from rhizosphere soils under Bidens pilosa individuals in different treatments (P<0.05). CK, Bare soil. Other treatments correspond to those in Table 1."

Fig. 2

Principle components analysis (PCA) of PLFA profiles from rhizosphere soil microbial communities and loadings factors of PLFA contributing to soil microbial communities ordination pattern of the different treatments of Bidens pilosa. The treatments correspond to those in Table 1."

Table 2

The change of PLFAs extracted from rhizosphere soils of Bidens pilosa in different treatments (unit μg/g) (mean ± SD, P<0.05). A, Actinomycetes; AMF, Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; F, Fungi; G-, Gram-negative bacterium; G+, Gram-positive bacterium; P, Actinomycetes; F/B, Ratio of fungi and bacterium; G-/G+, Ratio of gram-negative bacterium and gram-positive bacterium. CK, Bare soil. The treatments correspond to those in Table 1. The different superscripts indicate significant difference between treatments after multiplicative comparison (P < 0.05)."

A AMF F G- G+ P F/B G-/G+
CK 1.21±0.04c 1.48±0.44b 3.63±0.67b 4.01±0.47d 5.04±0.67d 0.37±0.10c 0.80±0.04a 0.12±0.00d
B 1.82±0.07b 14.87±6.69ab 6.28±0.43ab 6.66±0.32b 7.71±0.44b 1.19±0.33ab 0.91±0.06a 0.14±0.00b
B+S 2.29±0.17a 16.96±4.20a 8.40±2.19a 9.11±0.32a 9.73±0.58a 1.41±0.79a 0.92±0.19a 0.15±0.00a
B+C 1.70±0.06b 4.97±1.26ab 4.78±0.05ab 5.32±0.06c 7.35±0.08bc 0.54±0.06bc 0.74±0.00a 0.14±0.00b
B+M 1.73±0.18b 9.08±4.78ab 8.01±4.00a 5.65±0.84c 6.63±0.12c 1.04±0.16abc 1.38±0.33a 0.13±0.00c

Table 3

Change of total nutrient extracted from rhizosphere soils of Bidens pilosa in different treatments. The different superscripts indicate significant difference between treatments after multiplicative comparison (P < 0.05). CK, Bare soil. The treatments correspond to those in Table 1."

Available K
Organic carbon
pH 速效磷
Available P
Nitrate N
Ammonium N
CK 221.67±8.62a 6.7.0±0.07c 7.94±0.01c 1.13±0.18c 21.72±1.96c 71.50±1.54a
B 201.33±4.93b 10.34±0.3a 8.26±0.04a 1.77±0.09b 23.65±2.01ab 66.07±0.71bc
B+S 221.67±0.58a 9.46±0.53b 8.09±0.06b 2.52±0.10a 21.51±1.19c 66.41±2.68b
B+C 205.00±1.73b 9.75±0.24b 8.07±0.02b 1.73±0.06b 25.05±0.73a 63.93±1.53c
B+M 198.00±2.65b 9.29±0.09b 7.97±0.09c 2.48±0.28a 20.85±0.71c 64.45±2.13c

Table 4

Enzyme activity extracted from rhizosphere soils of Bidens pilosa in different treatments. The different superscripts indicate significant difference between treatments after multiplicative comparison (P < 0.05). CK, Bare soil. The treatments correspond to those in Table 1."

Acid phosphatase
Alkaline phosphatase
CK 42.74±0.15d 10.99±0.49e 64.41±0.87d 23.04±0.55d
B 66.13±3.78bc 18.46±0.14a 100.63±1.41b 74.05±1.03a
B+S 61.83±0.65c 12.68±0.57d 103.00±1.87b 66.9±4.65b
B+C 73.33±5.52a 16.02±0.22c 108.67±1.51a 66.32±1.02b
B+M 69.77±3.88ab 16.92±0.09b 96.89±0.62c 59.50±3.03c

Fig. 3

Canoninal correspondence analysis (CCA) ordination of the relationship of PLFAs and soil nutrients in Bidens pilosa invasion region"

Fig. 4

Canoninal correspondence analysis (CCA) ordination of the relationship of PLFAs and soil enzyme activities in Bidens pilosa invasion region. ALP, Alkaline phosphatase; ACP, Acid phosphatase."

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