Biodiversity Science ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (7): 767-780.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015249

Special Issue: Marine Biodiversity Under Global Climate Change

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Comparison of zooplankton communities inside and outside the Hangzhou Bay in autumn

Dongrong Zhang1, 2, Zhaoli Xu1, *(), Jiayi Xu1, Kaixing Dong1, 3   

  1. 1 Key and Open Laboratory of Marine and Estuary Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture of China, East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Shanghai 200090
    2 Key Laboratory of Engineering Oceanography, Second Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, People’s Republic of China, Hangzhou 310012
    3 College of Ocean & Earth Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361102
  • Received:2015-09-15 Accepted:2016-03-11 Online:2016-08-04
  • Xu Zhaoli E-mail:xiaomin@sh163.net

We analyzed and compared the differences in community composition, K-dominance curves and diversity index (H') of zooplankton community structure characteristics inside and outside the Hangzhou Bay in autumn (outside the bay: 122.10°-122.58° E, 30.54°-30.93° N; inside the bay: the east area of north: 121.67°-121.87° E, 30.68°-30.83° N; the east area of south: 121.60°-121.85° E, 29.95°-30.24° N; the west area of north: 121.31°-121.56° E, 30.58°-30.77° N). Results indicated that there were large differences between the community composition of zooplankton outside the bay and those in the three areas inside the bay. The area outside the bay (community I) was composed of nearshore species such as Pseudeuphausia sinica and nearshore low-salinity species such as Centropages dorsispinatus, followed by offshore species. Community II (the eastern area of south Hangzhou Bay) was composed of nearshore low-salinity species such as Labidocera sinilobata, followed by nearshore species. Community III (the eastern area of north Hangzhou Bay) was mixed with nearshore low-salinity species such as Labidocera euchaeta and estuarine brackish-water species such as Tortanus vermiculus. Community IV (the western area of north Hangzhou Bay) was characterized by the dominant species, Tortanus vermiculus of estuarine brackish-water species that had the highest proportion, which was different from the community I. Generally, the community with lower salinity adaptability appeared in the western and northern areas. According to K-dominance curves, the dominance curves of community I and community III were quite gentle. In addition, the initial cumulative dominance of community III was higher than that of community I. Compared with community I, the initial cumulative dominance of community II and community IV were far higher than that of community I. The initial cumulative dominance of community I (outside the bay) was particularly low, which indicated that there were many types of dominant species in community I, and the dominance of single dominant species was lower than those communities inside the bay. Results of variance analysis indicated that there were highly significant differences between the diversity index of zooplankton outside the bay and those in the other three waters inside the bay (P < 0.01). Meanwhile, there were no significant differences between the three communities inside the bay (P > 0.05). This showed that the diversity index of zooplankton outside the bay was higher than those of the communities inside the bay. The influence of different water masses resulted in zooplankton community differences in the inner and outer waters of the bay.

Key words: Hangzhou Bay, community, cumulative dominance, zooplankton, diversity

Fig. 1

Sampling stations of zooplankton inside and outside the Hangzhou Bay. a, The west area of north Hangzhou Bay; b, The east area of north Hangzhou Bay; c, The east area of south Hangzhou Bay; d, The sea area outside the Bay; e, Sampling stations in the different parts."

Fig. 2

Comparison of salinity inside and outside the Hangzhou Bay in autumn"

Fig. 3

Bray-Curtis cluster of zooplankton community structure inside and outside the Hangzhou Bay in autumn. I: Community in the offshore area, II: Community in the east area of south part, III: Community in the east area of north part, IV: Community in the west area of north part. The same below."

Fig. 4

Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis of zooplankton community at each sampling station inside and outside the Hangzhou Bay in autumn"

Table 1

Results of one-way analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) for zooplankton communities inside and outside the Hangzhou Bay in autumn"

区域
Area
P ANOSIM
R
湾外海域与湾内南岸东侧
Offshore area vs The east area of south part
0.001 0.796
湾外海域与湾内北岸东侧
Offshore area vs The east area of north part
0.001 0.979
湾外海域与湾内北岸西侧
Offshore area vs The west area of north part
0.001 0.992

Fig. 5

K-dominance curves by abundance inside and outside the Hangzhou Bay in autumn"

Table 2

Eco-group species composition and abundance of zooplankton inside and outside the Hangzhou Bay in autumn"

种名 Species 平均丰度 Mean abundance (ind./m3) 生态类群
Eco-group
I II III IV
中华哲水蚤 Calanus sinicus 12.5 0.1 0.1
火腿许水蚤 Schmackeria poplesia 9.9 0.9
双刺唇角水蚤 Labidocera bipinnata 0.8 0.1
真刺唇角水蚤 Labidocera euchaeta 4.0 47.4 41.1 0.1
左突唇角水蚤 Labidocera sinilobata 378.1 1.9
太平洋纺锤水蚤 Acartia pacifica 1.8 0.5
虫肢歪水蚤 Tortanus vermiculus 0.1 2.8 9.6 32.1
针刺拟哲水蚤 Paracalanus aculeatus 0.8 0.3 25.7
背针胸刺水蚤 Centropages dorsispinatus 26.9 1.5 0.2
中华胸刺水蚤 Centropages sinensis 3.1
中华华哲水蚤 Sinocalanus sinensis 0.1
亚强真哲水蚤 Eucalanus subcrassus 8.4 0.1
刺尾角水蚤 Pontella spinicauda 17.6
刺尾纺锤水蚤 Acartia spinicauda 0.2 2.2
微剌哲水蚤 Canthocalanus pauper 0.5
圆唇角水蚤 Labidocera rotunda 6.7
平滑真刺水蚤 Euchaeta plana 6.5
精致真刺水蚤 Euchaeta concinna 2.2
尖刺唇角水蚤 Labidocera acuta 0.4
普通波水蚤 Undinula vulgaris 0.1
瘦尾胸刺水蚤 Centropages tenuiremis 0.1
黑点叶水蚤 Sapphirina nigromaculata 0.1
伯氏平头水蚤 Candacia bradyi 0.1
小哲水蚤 Nannocalanus minor 0.1
漂浮囊糠虾 Gastrosaccus pelagicus 0.1 0.4
长额刺糠虾 Acanthomysis longirostris 8.2 5.9 1.8 5.2
短额刺糠虾 Acanthomysis brevirostris 7.9 7.2
漂浮小井伊糠虾 Iiella pelagicus 1.4 2.5
中华假磷虾 Pseudeuphausia sinica 29.3 0.1
日本毛虾 Acetes japonicus 0.1 0.6
中型莹虾 Lucifer intermedius 0.4 0.3
细螯虾 Leptochela gracilis 0.1
细长涟虫 Iphinoe tenera 1.0 0.1
三叶针尾涟虫 Diastylis tricincta 0.1
百陶箭虫 Sagitta bedoti 12.7 80.2 0.1 0.1
海龙箭虫 Sagitta nagae 0.1 0.1
肥胖箭虫 Sagitta enflata 1.1
细尖小涂氏虫戎 Tullbergella cuspidata 0.3
尖笔帽螺 Creseis acicula 0.1
明螺 Atlanta peroni 0.0
齿形海萤 Cypridina dentata 0.0

Fig. 6

The variation of eco-group abundance of zooplankton communities inside and outside the Hangzhou Bay in autumn"

Fig. 7

The variation of eco-group species numbers of zooplankton communities inside and outside the Hangzhou Bay in autumn"

Fig. 8

The variation of dominance of dominant species of zooplankton inside and outside the Hangzhou Bay in autumn. a, k, q: Labidocera euchaeta; b: Labidocera rotunda; c: Acanthomysis brevirostris; d: Calanus sinicus; e: Centropages dorsispinatus; f: Pseudeuphausia sinica; g, l: Sagitta bedoti; h: Eucalanus subcrassus; i, t: Acanthomysis longirostris; j: Euchaeta plana; m, v: Labidocera sinilobata; n: Pontella spinicauda; o: Schmackeria poplesia; p: Paracalanus aculeatus; r, u: Tortanus vermiculus; s: Centropages sinensis."

Fig. 9

Horizontal distribution of Shannon-Wiener diversity index of zooplankton communities inside and outside the Hangzhou Bay in autumn. a, Community IV in the west area of north part; b, Community III in the east area of north part; c, Community II in the east area of south part; d, Community I in the offshore area."

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