生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (5): 628-634.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.07251

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杜鹃花产业的种质资源基础: 现状、问题与对策

吴荭1,*(), 杨雪梅1, 邵慧敏2, 王飞2   

  1. 1 四川省自然资源科学研究院, 成都 610041
    2 中国科学院植物研究所华西亚高山植物园, 四川都江堰 611830
  • 收稿日期:2012-12-24 接受日期:2013-05-15 出版日期:2013-09-20 发布日期:2013-10-08
  • 通讯作者: 吴荭
  • 基金资助:
    四川省科技厅科技支撑计划高山杜鹃低海拔开发试验示范(132ZC2313);中国科学院战略生物资源技术支撑体系专项(CZBZX-1)

Germplasm resource base for rhododendron horticulture: status, probl- ems and countermeasures

Hong Wu1,*(), Xuemei Yang1, Huimin Shao2, Fei Wang2   

  1. 1 Sichuan Natural Resource Academy, Chengdu 610041
    2 West China Sub-alpine Botanical Garden, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dujiangyan, Sichuan 611830
  • Received:2012-12-24 Accepted:2013-05-15 Online:2013-09-20 Published:2013-10-08
  • Contact: Wu Hong

摘要:

杜鹃花种质资源是决定未来杜鹃花产业发展潜力的根本。作者通过探讨杜鹃花种质资源保育利用现状与存在的问题, 试图为我国杜鹃花产业的健康与可持续发展提供一些新的思路。目前全球杜鹃花产业的种质资源利用率为12.0-15.0%, 我国仅为8.7-12.2%, 仍具有巨大的利用潜力。现今利用的杜鹃花种类以映山红亚属(Subgenus Tsutsusi)、羊踯躅亚属(Subgenus Therorhodion)等中小型半常绿或落叶类群为主。作者根据多年的观察, 指出了我国的一些适合用于未来品种选育的原始种类。目前, 我国杜鹃花产业主要面临的问题是对种质资源的价值认识不足、研发平台建设滞后、缺乏持续提供新品种及其配套技术的能力等。为此, 作者提出了如下对策: (1)正确认识杜鹃花的资源价值, 加强杜鹃花知识的传播, 在种质资源型产业的构建、改造、运作等过程中充分权衡和监督种质资源基础设计的合理性与可持续性; (2)构建杜鹃花种质资源联盟, 建立3-5个以杜鹃花为主体的自然保护区; (3) 提升杜鹃花产业的研发与创新能力。

关键词: 种质资源, 资源联盟, 知识产权, 杜鹃花

Abstract:

The germplasm resource of rhododendrons is a potential factor influencing their horticultural development. We discuss the current situation and problems facing utilization and conservation of rhododendrons to provide new thoughts with regard to China’s rhododendron horticulture industry. Currently, only about 12.0-15.0 percent of global rhododendron germplasm resources, and around 8.7-12.2 percent found in China, have been utilized in rhododendron horticulture. The rhododendron species commonly used mainly belong to semi-evergreen and deciduous species, for instance, Subgenera Tsutsusi and Therorhodion. We list some of China’s primitive rhododendron species which are suitable for breeding based on our field observations, and point out some current problems in the utilization of germplasm including insufficient understanding of the value of germplasm resources, limitation of the research platform, and limited technical ability for cultivating new varieties, etc. The rationality and sustainability of germplasm resources should be fully considered and managed in the development of rhododendron horticulture. We suggest the development of a public platform for research and the establishment of 3-5 nature reserves mainly focusing on rhododendron conservation. Also, we advise strengthening of independent research and the development of capabilities and techniques for producing new varieties.

Key words: germplasm resource, resource alliance, intellectual property right, Rhododendron