生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (11): 1213-1222.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016376

• 研究报告: 植物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于空间统计学分析农作物种质资源的空间分布特征

陈彦清1, 曹永生1, 吴彦澎2, 陈丽娜3, 方沩1,*()   

  1. 1 中国农业科学院作物科学研究所, 北京100081
    2 北京市农林科学院, 北京 100097
    3 商丘师范学院计算机与信息技术学院, 河南商丘 476000;
  • 收稿日期:2017-08-03 接受日期:2017-10-09 出版日期:2017-11-20 发布日期:2017-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 方沩
  • 基金资助:
    国家农作物种质资源共享服务平台(NICGR2017-000)和农作物种质资源保护与利用专项(2017NWB036-10)

Spatial distribution characteristics of crop germplasm resources using spatial statistics

Yanqing Chen1, Yongsheng Cao1, Yanpeng Wu2, Lina Chen3, Wei Fang1,*()   

  1. 1 Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081
    2 Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijng 100097
    3 Department of Computer and Information Technology, Shangqiu Normal College, Shangqiu, Henan 476000
  • Received:2017-08-03 Accepted:2017-10-09 Online:2017-11-20 Published:2017-11-20
  • Contact: Fang Wei

摘要:

掌握农作物种质资源的空间分布特征, 分析种质资源在地理空间上的聚集离散特征, 对于作物种质资源全面收集、有效保护和高效利用具有重要意义。本研究基于空间统计学原理和方法, 借助ArcGIS软件, 对全国种质资源的分布进行了冷热点分析, 定性分析了我国种质资源分布的聚集和离散区域; 然后分析了不同种植业区域内种质资源的数量和重心分布特征, 确定各类主导作物区的资源密度和均质性情况。最后分析了各种植业分区内资源分布的方位特征, 确定资源分布的范围、角度和方向性。结果表明: 我国华北平原和部分黄土高原地区属于种质资源分布的聚集区, 甘肃中部、四川及新疆西部、青海东部属于种质资源分布的离散区, 除了部分空白区外, 其余部分为种质资源的随机分布区; 西北绿洲麦棉甜菜葡萄区、青藏高原青稞小麦油菜区、东北大豆春麦玉米甜菜区和北部高原小杂粮甜菜区4区, 资源分布密度低且分布不均匀, 说明这4个地区的部分种质资源相对集中分布在局部地区, 而东南部6区的种质资源分布不仅密度大, 而且分布相对均匀, 说明我国东西部种质资源分布特点差异明显; 西北绿洲麦棉甜菜葡萄区的资源分布范围最广, 华南双季稻甘蔗热带作物甘蔗区的资源分布方向趋势性最明显。北部高原小杂粮甜菜区、东北大豆春麦玉米甜菜区和青藏高原青稞小麦油菜区的种质资源大部分分布在区域的南部, 西北绿洲麦棉甜菜葡萄区的种质资源的分布偏向北部, 东南6区的资源分布则不存在明显的偏向性。

关键词: 作物种质资源, 空间统计学, 冷热点分析, 方位分析, 种植业分区

Abstract

It is important to understand and analyze the spatial distribution features and models of crop germplasm resources for the comprehensive collection, effective protection, and efficient utilization of these resources. This paper analyzed these characteristics based on spatial statistical principles and methods with ArcGIS software. Firstly, we did a cold and hot spot analysis of germplasm resources at the national scale to determine discrete regions of Chinese germplasm resources from a qualitative aspect. Then, we analyzed the number and center of gravity characteristics of germplasm resources to determine density and homogeneity of germplasm resources in main crop regions. Finally, we analyzed the bearing distribution characteristics of germplasm resources in different planting partitions to determine the scope of resource distribution, angle, and direction. According to results of cold and hot spot analysis, the northern China plain and a part of the loess plateau region belong to accumulation areas of germplasm resources. The central region of Gansu province, the western part of Sichuan and Xinjiang, and the eastern part of Qinghai belong to a discrete area of germplasm resources. In addition to the blank area of germplasm resources, the rest is part of the random distribution area of germplasm resources. According to quality and gravity center analysis results, the Northwest Oasis region mainly grows wheat, cotton, beets, and grapes, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau region mainly grows barley, wheat and rape, the Northern plateau region mainly grows small grains and beets, and the Northeast region mainly grows soybeans, spring wheat and beets. These are all located in the northeast and the west of China, and their germplasm resources’ densities are low and uniformities are uneven, which means a small amount of the germplasm resources in the four areas are relatively concentrated in a small area. Not only are the densities of germplasm resources of the 6 regions in southeastern of China large, but also the uniformities are relatively homogeneous. The differences in density and uniformity of germplasm resources between eastern and western China are obvious. According to results of the orientation analysis, the distribution range of germplasm resources in the Northwest Oasis is wheat, cotton, beets, and grapes, while the directional trend of germplasm resources in the South are double crops of rice, tropical crops, and sugarcane. Germplasm resources are distributed as follows in these three regions: in the Northern plateau small grains, beets, Northeast soybean, spring wheat and beets; in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau highland barley, wheat, and rape, mostly distributed in southern areas; and in the Northwest Oasis wheat, cotton, beets, and grapes found in the north of the region. The distribution of germplasm resources of these 6 southeastern regions has no obvious bias.

Key words: crop germplasm resources, spatial statistics, cold and hot spot analysis, orientation analysis, cropping regionalization in China